Phonological Development

megan langdon
Mind Map by megan langdon, updated more than 1 year ago
megan langdon
Created by megan langdon almost 6 years ago


Child language acquisition mind map on early stages of development

Resource summary

Phonological Development
  1. How children develop ability to use & understand sounds of lang
    1. First year
      1. Occurs during first year
        1. Crying, cooing, babbling, phonemic, expansion & contraction
      2. Don't make sweeping gens when talking about later phonological development
        1. Order in which vowels & consonants are acquired varies from child to child
          1. Sometimes children appear to have mastered a sound in one word, but then not in another
            1. General trends
              1. Age 2 1/2
                1. All vowels & 2/3 of consonants mastered
                2. Age 4
                  1. Diff w/ only few consonants
                  2. Age 6 - 7
                    1. Confident use
                    2. Consonants are first used correctly at beginning of words
                      1. Consonants at end of words present more diff
                        1. Example - 'Push' vs 'riP'
                        2. Frequency
                          1. Gen, sounds which occur freq in large no of words be acquired before sounds that occur less freq
                        3. Making words easier (phonemic simplification)
                          1. Detection
                            1. Ignore sound exists
                            2. Final consonants
                              1. May be dropped
                              2. Unstressed syllables
                                1. Often deleted
                                2. Consonant clusters
                                  1. Reduced
                                  2. Substitution
                                    1. Easier sounds substituted for harder ones
                                      1. R becomes W
                                        1. TH becomes D, N / F
                                          1. T becomes D
                                            1. P becomes B
                                        2. Comprehension is often ahead of speech
                                          1. Same can be true in phonological development
                                          2. Berko & Brown (1960)
                                            1. Child - Fis
                                              1. Adult - This is your fis?
                                                1. Child - No - my fis
                                                  1. Adult - Oh, this is your fish
                                                    1. Child - Yes my fis
                                              2. Child with indistinguishable pronunciation of
                                                1. Mouse / mouth
                                                  1. Cart / Card
                                                    1. Jug / Duck
                                                    2. Could point to corresponding pics in a comprehension task
                                                    3. Intonation
                                                      1. As a child gets older, a wider range of meanings is expressed through intonation
                                                        1. Example
                                                          1. two word stage - 'my car' vs 'MY car'
                                                        2. Although intonation patterns can be reproduced from an early stage, understanding of meaning is still developing into teenage yrs
                                                        3. Cruttenden (1974)
                                                          1. Football results
                                                            1. Intonation used in 1st teams score enabled adults to accurately predict home wins away wins / draw
                                                              1. Children 7 - 11
                                                                1. Youngest = largely unsuccessful & oldest significantly less successful than adults
                                                              2. Glossary
                                                                1. Phonemic simplification
                                                                  1. Deletion
                                                                    1. Substitution
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