Physical Education

miles.a.moran
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind Map on Physical Education, created by miles.a.moran on 04/13/2015.

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miles.a.moran
Created by miles.a.moran over 4 years ago
Physical education
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Physical Education
1 Components of Fitness
1.1 Health-Related
1.1.1 Speed - Moving all the parts of the body as quickly as possible
1.1.2 Cardiovascular Endurance - The ability of the heart and lungs to work together efficiently
1.1.3 Flexibility - The range of movement around a joint
1.1.4 Power - The combination of the maximum amount of strength and speed
1.1.5 Strength - The ability to bear weight
1.1.5.1 Dynamic Strength - Strength supported over a long period of time
1.1.5.2 Explosive Strength - Short and sharp bursts of movement
1.1.5.3 Static Strength - Strength applied to an immovable object
1.2 Skill-Related
1.2.1 Agility - The ability to move quickly, changing speed and direction whenever possible
1.2.2 Balance - Maintaining a given posture in static and dynamic situations, being able to stay level
1.2.3 Co-ordination - Linking all parts of a movement into one efficient and smooth movement
1.2.4 Timing - Coinciding movements in relation to external factors
1.2.5 Reaction Time - The time taken for the body, or part of the body, to respond to a stimulus
2 Respiration
2.1 Anaerobic
2.1.1 Does not require oxygen
2.1.2 Less than 90 seconds
2.1.3 80-90% MHR
2.1.4 Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid
2.2 Aerobic
2.2.1 Requires oxygen
2.2.2 More than 90 seconds
2.2.3 60-80% MHR
2.2.4 Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Water + Carbon dioxide
2.3 Inhale
2.3.1 The intercostal muscles contract expanding the ribcage
2.3.1.1 The diaphragm contracts pulling downwards, increasing the chest volume
2.3.1.1.1 Pressure inside the chest is lowered and so air is sucked into the lungs
2.4 Exhale
2.4.1 The intercostal muscles relax, the ribcage drops inwards and downwards
2.4.1.1 The diaphragm relaxes moving upwards, decreasing the chest volume
2.4.1.1.1 Pressure inside the chest increases so air is forced out
2.5 Respiratory system
2.5.1 Advantages of breathing through the nose
2.5.1.1 Air is warmed by tiny capillaries so it is a similar temperature to internal organs
2.5.1.2 Hairs and mucus prevent large dust and pollen particles entering the lungs
2.5.1.3 Air is moistened by mucous so it can be absorbed easily
2.6 Oxygen debt
2.7 Gaseous Exchange - When oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide which is removed within the alveoli
3 Injuries
3.1 Internally Caused - Where the performer is solely responsible
3.1.1 Overuse - Caused by training or performing too much e.g. Tennis elbow
3.1.2 Sudden - Caused by sudden twisting or turning awkwardly e.g. Pulled quadricep
3.2 Externally Caused - Caused by factors other than the performer
3.2.1 Impact - Caused by a collision with a person/object e.g. Running into a goalpost
3.2.2 Foul Play - Caused by others not following the rules e.g. Studs to the face
3.2.3 Equipment - Caused by poor equipment/clothing e.g. Blisters from shoes
3.2.4 Accidents - Caused non-deliberately by another player e.g. Getting hit by the ball
4 Somatotypes
4.1 Endomorph
4.1.1 Pear-shaped
4.1.2 Wide hips and wide shoulders
4.1.3 Large amounts of fat
4.1.4 Suited to rugby
4.2 Mesomorph
4.2.1 Wedge shaped
4.2.2 Wide shoulders and narrow hips
4.2.3 Muscular arms and legs
4.2.4 Minimum amounts of fat
4.2.5 Suited to most sports
4.3 Ectomorph
4.3.1 Long, slender and thin
4.3.2 Narrow shoulders and narrow hips
4.3.3 Thin arms and legs
4.3.4 Little muscle and body fat
4.3.5 Suited to endurance events
5 Muscular System
5.1 Types of Muscles
5.1.1 Voluntary Muscles (Skeletal)
5.1.2 Involuntary Muscles (Internal organs)
5.1.3 Cardiac Muscle (Heart=Automatic)
5.2 Muscular Contractions
5.2.1 Isotonic - Where the muscle contracts and movement does occur
5.2.2 Isometric - Where the muscle contracts but no movement occurs
5.2.3 Antagonistic Pair - Two muscles that work together to create movement
5.2.3.1 Agonist - Is the prime mover which is the main muscle creating movement
5.2.3.2 Antagonist - The muscle which relaxes to allow movement
5.3 Joiners
5.3.1 Ligaments
5.3.1.1 Strong
5.3.1.2 Elastic
5.3.1.3 Made of many fibres
5.3.1.4 Attach bone to bone
5.3.2 Tendons
5.3.2.1 Sturdy
5.3.2.2 Non-elastic
5.3.2.3 Size changes depending on muscle
5.3.2.4 Attaches bone to muscle
5.3.3 Cartilage
5.3.3.1 Tough
5.3.3.2 Flexible
5.3.3.3 At the end of bones
5.3.3.4 Cushions impact
5.3.4 Strain - a force tending to pull or stretch something to a damaging degree
5.3.5 Sprain - twist the ligaments violently so as to cause pain
6 Skeletal System
6.1 Types of bones
6.1.1 Long e.g. Femur
6.1.2 Short e.g. Carpals
6.1.3 Flat/Plate e.g. Sternum
6.1.4 Irregular e.g. Vertebrae
6.2 Functions
6.2.1 Movement
6.2.2 Support
6.2.3 Shape
6.2.4 Protection
6.2.5 Blood Cell Production
6.3 Joint - A point between two bones where movement occurs
6.3.1 Types of Joints
6.3.1.1 Hinge e.g. Elbow
6.3.1.2 Ball and Socket e.g. Shoulder
6.3.1.3 Pivot e.g. Wrist
6.3.1.4 Saddle e.g. Thumb
6.3.1.5 Gliding e.g. Bones in the hand
6.3.1.6 Condyloid e.g. Wrist
6.4 Types of Movement
6.4.1 Flexion - Decreasing an angle at a joint
6.4.2 Extension increasing the angle at a joint
6.4.3 Abduction - Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
6.4.4 Adduction - Movement of a limb towards the midline of the body
6.4.5 Rotation - Movement of a bone or limb freely in a curve
7 Principles of Training
7.1 Specificity - Training that is suited to a particular sport/activity or individual
7.2 Progression - Where training is increased gradually as the body adjusts to the demands placed on it
7.3 Overload - When you work harder than normal in order to improve fitness levels
7.3.1 Frequency - How often you perform something
7.3.2 Intensity - How hard you train/perform
7.3.3 Time - How long is given to perform a certain activity
7.4 Reversibility - The re-establishment of the body's original fitness levels
7.5 Tedium - Boredom due to the repetition of the same physical activity
8 Fatigue & Stress
8.1 Fatigue - A feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on by extreme exertion
8.1.1 Effects
8.1.1.1 Local Muscular Fatigue - When a group of muscles become fatigued
8.1.1.2 Concentration levels will decrease so you are more likely to make mistakes
8.1.1.3 Skill, speed and strength levels decrease
8.1.1.4 If your'e unable to rest you will be unable to continue
8.2 Stress - The body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response
8.2.1 Effects
8.2.1.1 Can increase levels of arousal
8.2.1.2 When anxious you are more likely to make mistakes
8.2.1.3 Nervousness can make you feel sick or cause shaking
8.2.1.4 Sometimes can increase motivation and determination
8.2.1.5 More common in individual sporting events
9 Individual Differences
9.1 Age
9.1.1 Flexibility decreases
9.1.2 Strength decreases
9.1.3 Oxygen capacity decreases
9.1.4 Skill level remains the same
9.2 Disability
9.2.1 Types
9.2.1.1 Physical
9.2.1.2 Mental
9.2.1.3 Permanent
9.2.1.4 Temporary
9.3 Inclusion - A policy that no one should experience barriers to learining as a result of their disability, heritage, gender, special education requirement, ethnicity, social group, sexual orientation, race or culture
10 Training
10.1 Seasons
10.1.1 Periodisation - Dividing a training programme into different parts
10.1.2 Pre-season - Time of initial preperation leading up to a competition
10.1.2.1 Focuses on fitness for your sport
10.1.2.2 Develops techniques, skills and strategies
10.1.3 Peak-season - Main competitive period
10.1.3.1 Practice skills at high speeds in competitive situations
10.1.3.2 Ongoing fitness sessions
10.1.4 Post-season - Mainly rest and active recovery
10.1.4.1 Done to maintain fitness levels
10.2 Anaerobic Training zone
10.2.1 80-90% of MHR
10.2.2 Maximum of 60 seconds
10.3 Aerobic Training Zone
10.3.1 60-80% of MHR
10.3.2 Minimum of 15 minutes