Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Kathryn Bellis
Mind Map by Kathryn Bellis, updated more than 1 year ago
Kathryn Bellis
Created by Kathryn Bellis almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, created by Kathryn Bellis on 04/19/2015.

Resource summary

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
1 What is NMR?
1.1 Many atomic nuclei behave as though they are spinning - this is called NUCLEAR SPIN.
1.1.1 Such nuclei have a magnetic moment which means they behave like tiny bar magnets.
1.1.1.1 When an external magnetic field is applied the nuclei which have spin will line up in the either the same direction (with the field) or the opposite direction (against the field.
1.1.1.1.1 The nuclei aligned with the field are much lower in energy that the ones against it.
1.1.1.1.1.1 A signal is recorded when a nucleus aligned wit the magnetic field absorbs low-energy radiation in the radio-frequency range and the nucleus enters the higher energy state.
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 This is called RESONANCE
2 Hnmr Spectroscopy
2.1 In organic molecules, protons are surrounded by ELECTRONS, which partially shields them from the applied magnetic field.
2.1.1 The amount of shielding depends on the electron density surrounding the nucleus and varies for different protons within a compound.
2.1.1.1 Factors which affect ELECTRON DENSITY:
2.1.1.1.1 Bond Polarity
2.1.1.1.2 The presence of electron donating groups
2.1.1.1.3 The presence of electron withdrawing groups
2.2 As each chemically distinct H atom has a unique electronic environment it gives rise to a characteristic resonance
2.2.1 Chemically Equivalent Protons are all in the same environment and therefore absorb the same frequency
2.3
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