Genes, Chromosomes and DNA

GeorgeHaines
Mind Map by GeorgeHaines, updated more than 1 year ago
GeorgeHaines
Created by GeorgeHaines about 5 years ago
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GCSE Science Mind Map on Genes, Chromosomes and DNA, created by GeorgeHaines on 04/20/2015.

Resource summary

Genes, Chromosomes and DNA
1 Nucleus of cells contain genetic information
1.1 Genetic material is arranged into chromosomes
1.1.1 Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
1.1.2 Each chromosome is one long molecule of DNA coiled up
1.1.2.1 A gene is a short length of a chromosome
1.1.2.1.1 Genes control the development of different characteristics
1.1.2.1.1.1 e.g: Hair Colour
1.1.2.1.1.2 Genes exist in different versions
1.1.2.1.1.2.1 Each version is a different form of characteristic
1.1.2.1.1.2.1.1 Different versions are called alleles
1.1.2.1.1.2.1.2 e.g: Eye colour
1.1.2.1.1.3 Some characteristics are controlled only by genes
1.1.2.1.1.3.1 e.g: Dimples
1.1.2.1.1.3.2 Sometimes by several working together
1.1.2.1.1.4 Some characteristics are controlled by environmental factors
1.1.2.1.1.4.1 e.g: Scars
1.1.2.1.1.5 Each gene is a code for making a specific protein
1.1.2.1.1.5.1 Different versions of different proteins means we end up with different characteristics
1.1.2.1.1.5.1.1 Functional proteins
1.1.2.1.1.5.1.1.1 e.g: Enzymes
1.1.2.1.1.5.1.2 Structural proteins
1.1.2.1.1.5.1.2.1 e.g: Skin, hair, blood, cytoplasm
1.1.2.1.1.6 An organism's genotype depend on all the genes it has
1.1.2.1.1.6.1 genes - genotype
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.1 e.g: Bb
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.2 Homozygous
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.2.1 Two identical alleles
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.2.1.1 bb
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.3 heterozygous
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.3.1 Two different alleles
1.1.2.1.1.6.1.3.1.1 Bb
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