Mind Map by BecauseItWasReal, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by BecauseItWasReal almost 5 years ago


Higher RMPS Mind Map on Morality, created by BecauseItWasReal on 04/20/2015.

Resource summary

1 Principles of Morality
1.1 Euthyphro Dilemma
1.1.1 "Are things right or wrong in themselves or are they only right or wrong in relation to the wishes of the Gods?"
1.1.2 A narrative between Euthyphro and Socrates.
1.2 Autonomy & Heteronomy
1.2.1 Autonomy - the view that what you consider to be morally right or wrong is independent of your religious beliefs.
1.2.2 Heteronomy - the view that making decisions is best done on the foundations of religious belief and tradition.
1.3 The Divine Command Theory
1.3.1 If God commands it, then it is good.
1.3.2 God is always right.
1.4 Sacred Texts
1.4.1 Play a central role in religious morality. Provide authority, examples, guidelines and God's will.
1.4.2 Holy books & scripture is important in every religion. Can be interpreted as literal or metaphorical.
1.5 The Golden Rule
1.5.1 Do to others as you would have them do to you.
1.5.2 A common rule across religions and non-religious groups.
1.6 Viewpoint independant of religion
1.6.1 Aristotle - Virtue Ethics Being moral is about rationally applying good sense and finding a middle way between extremes.
1.7 Utilitarian Eithcs
1.7.1 Act Refers to the greatest benefit accrued for one act.
1.7.2 Rule Refers to the greatest benefit in all similar situations.
1.7.3 An action is morally right if it results in the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount of people
1.7.4 Consequence based philosophy.
1.8 Kantian Ethics
1.8.1 Intention based philsosphy
1.8.2 Categorical Imperative universalisability law of nature treat people as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end.
1.8.3 Duty & Reason We should do what ought to be done. Actions should not be done for any other reason than that they are right.
2 Medical Ethics
2.1 Genetic Engineering
2.1.1 Deliberate manipulation of the genetic code of an organism. This is done by manipulation of genetic material.
2.2 Therapeutic Cloning
2.2.1 The use of embryonic stem cells to create identical tissue.
2.2.2 Creates stem cells, not babies.
2.2.3 Benefits anyone where tissue replacement is required.
2.3 Reproductive Cloning
2.3.1 Cloning to create child with same DNA as nucleus donor.
2.4 Moral Imlications
2.4.1 Fear of designer babies
2.4.2 Denying embryos of the right to live is wrong.
2.5 Use of Embryos
2.5.1 Research: Gene Therapy, Applied Research, Pure research.
2.5.2 Cloning Therapeutic & reproductive
2.6 HFEA
2.6.1 regulates embryo research
2.7 UK Law
2.7.1 licences must be provided by HFEA.
2.7.2 Research is allowed up to 14 days.
2.7.3 Frozen embryos can be stored for 5 years.
2.8 Christian View
2.8.1 Life is sacred, playing God is wrong.
2.8.2 God makes us how we are, playing God and changing people is wrong.
2.8.3 RCC - Against research - Accepts gene therapy for medical benefit.
2.8.4 COS - Accepts research up to 14 days.
2.9 Independent View
2.9.1 Utilitarianism Acceptable if benefits outweigh the drawbacks.
3 Euthanasia
3.1 Types
3.1.1 Voluntary - patient expresses their wish to die
3.1.2 Involuntary - patient can't express their wish to die.
3.1.3 Non-voluntary - patient doesn't express their wish to die.
3.1.4 Passive - treatment is withdrawn.
3.1.5 Indirect - treatment with the side-effect of quickening death.
3.2 Benefits
3.2.1 Lessens suffering
3.2.2 Respects patients wishes.
3.3 Dangers
3.3.1 Against Hippocratic Oath
3.3.2 People may loose trust in doctors.
3.3.3 Could lead to abuse
3.4 Moral Implications
3.4.1 The right to choose
3.4.2 Dignity in dying
3.4.3 It is wrong to take life
3.4.4 The person may be misinformed
3.4.5 The person my feel a burden
3.5 UK Law
3.5.1 Viewed as murder
3.5.2 Anyone assisting can be prosecuted
3.5.3 A criminal offence
3.6 Netherlands Law
3.6.1 Patient must personally volunteer request.
3.6.2 Patient must be terminally ill.
3.6.3 Must be a last resort.
3.6.4 2 doctors must agree.
3.7 BMA Guidelines
3.7.1 opposed to the legalisation of Euthanasia
3.7.2 Guidelines to advide doctors of issues.
3.8 Christian Viewpoint
3.8.1 Sanctity of life is more important.
3.8.2 Only God can take life, playing God is wrong.
3.8.3 We have responsibilities to care for eachother
3.9 Independant Viewpoint
3.9.1 Right to choose.
3.9.2 An act of compaasion.
3.9.3 Lessens suffering.
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