Language & Power Theorists

Mind Map by chardurtnall, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by chardurtnall almost 6 years ago


A level English Language (Language & Power) Mind Map on Language & Power Theorists, created by chardurtnall on 04/23/2015.

Resource summary

Language & Power Theorists
1 Wareing (1999)
1.1 Political Power: power held by those with the backing of the law (e.g. politicians, police, judges, etc.)
1.2 Personal Power: power held by individuals as a result of roles in organisations/occupations (e.g. teachers and employees).
1.3 Social Group Power: power held as a result of being a dominant member of a social group through social variables such as class gender and age. In Britain, this is often white middle class men.
2 Norman Fairclough
2.1 Power in Discourse: the ways in which power in conveyed through language.
2.2 Power behind Discourse: the focus on the social and ideological reasons behind power.
2.3 Synthetic Personalisation: the way in which advertising and other forms of communication use personalised language such as the second person pronoun 'you' to construct a relationship between text producer and receiver.
2.4 Members' Resources: humans' ability to interpret text based on their background knowledge. Text producers can use this to manipulate people.
2.5 Implied Reader: the target audience of the text. Assumptions made by the text readers' age, gender, class, etc. in order to manipulate them more effectively.
2.6 Power Asymmetry: the difference between the amount of power speakers have (e.g. teacher/pupil).
2.7 Powerful Participant: people with higher status in a given context (e.g. teacher/pupil).
2.8 Less Powerful Participant: people with less status in a given context (e.g. pupil/teacher).
3 Politeness Theory (Goffman; Brown and Levinson)
3.1 Face: a person's self-esteem and emotional needs.
3.2 Positive Face: the need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
3.3 Negative Face: the need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed on.
3.4 Face-threatening Act: a communicative act that threatens someone's positive or negative face.
3.5 Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies: strategies that a speaker might use to alleviate or avoid FTA's.
4 Glossary
4.1 Instrumental Power: power used by individuals or groups to maintain and enforce authority.
4.2 Influential Power: power used to influence and persuade others. Persuasive features are often used to show influential power.
4.3 Ideology: a set of beliefs/attitudes held by individuals/groups. It does not just mean political beliefs.
4.4 Epistemic Modality: modal verbs that express degrees of possibility, probability or certainty (e.g. might).
4.5 Deontic Modality: modal verbs that express degrees of necessity and obligation (e.g. will).
4.6 Repressive Discourse Strategy: an indirect way of exercising power and control through conversational constraints.
4.7 Oppressive Discourse Strategy: linguistic behaviour that is open in its exercising of power/control.
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