1.1 Political Power: power held by those
with the backing of the law (e.g.
politicians, police, judges, etc.)
1.2 Personal Power: power held by
individuals as a result of roles in
teachers and employees).
1.3 Social Group Power: power held as a
result of being a dominant member of a
social group through social variables
such as class gender and age. In Britain,
this is often white middle class men.
2 Norman Fairclough
2.1 Power in Discourse:
the ways in which
power in conveyed
2.2 Power behind
Discourse: the focus on
the social and
2.3 Synthetic Personalisation:
the way in which advertising
and other forms of
personalised language such
as the second person
pronoun 'you' to construct a
relationship between text
producer and receiver.
2.4 Members' Resources: humans'
ability to interpret text based on
their background knowledge. Text
producers can use this to manipulate
2.5 Implied Reader: the target
audience of the text. Assumptions
made by the text readers' age,
gender, class, etc. in order to
manipulate them more
2.6 Power Asymmetry: the
difference between the amount
of power speakers have (e.g.
2.7 Powerful Participant: people with
higher status in a given context
2.8 Less Powerful
Participant: people with
less status in a given
3 Politeness Theory (Goffman; Brown and Levinson)
3.1 Face: a person's
self-esteem and emotional
3.2 Positive Face: the need to
feel wanted, liked and
3.3 Negative Face: the need to have
freedom of thought and action and
not feel imposed on.
3.4 Face-threatening Act: a
communicative act that threatens
someone's positive or negative
3.5 Positive and Negative
strategies that a speaker
might use to alleviate or avoid
4.1 Instrumental Power: power used by individuals or groups
to maintain and enforce authority.
4.2 Influential Power: power used to influence and persuade others.
Persuasive features are often used to show influential power.
4.3 Ideology: a set of beliefs/attitudes held by individuals/groups. It
does not just mean political beliefs.
4.4 Epistemic Modality: modal verbs that express degrees
of possibility, probability or certainty (e.g. might).
4.5 Deontic Modality: modal verbs that
express degrees of necessity and
obligation (e.g. will).
4.6 Repressive Discourse Strategy:
an indirect way of exercising
power and control through
4.7 Oppressive Discourse
Strategy: linguistic behaviour
that is open in its exercising of