Sri Lanka Tsunami (2004) case study

suraiya shahid
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Resource summary

Sri Lanka Tsunami (2004) case study
1 Environmental impacts
1.1 Areas protected by natrual barriers - mangroves and sand dunes left unaffected
1.1.1 Mangrove areas, which protected properties and lives during the tsunami were damaged Contamination as a result of land runoff of wastes and polluntants, debris, soil and organic matter
1.2 Impacts on flora and - biodiversity extensive soil erosion
1.2.1 Die back of flora in ares of seawater intrusion
1.3 Freshwater bodies and fishery breeding grounds in protected areas were contamintated with seawater
1.4 Damage to marine areas and corals in inter and subtidal areas aswell as immediate loss of natrual resources
1.4.1 Fish, Lobster, Crabs
1.4.2 Turtle hacheries were damaged Relied on fishermen to bring eggs to them
1.5 Reduced tourist numbers reduced their funds too
1.6 Recovery strategy
1.6.1 Long term impacts are being monitored
1.6.2 Replanting of certain coastal areas with mangroves
1.6.3 Restrictions in the development allowed in the coastal strip
2 Tourism
2.1 Prior to the tsunami, the tourism sector recieved 565,000 arrivals in 2004 (accountable for 2% of GDP)
2.1.1 50,000 directly employed
2.1.2 65,000 indirectly employed
2.1.3 $350m - foreign exchange earnings Damage to this sector
2.1.4 $200m worth of damage to hotel rooms $50m in tourism related assets
2.2 Recovery strategy
2.2.1 Special offers attracted tourist back to Sri-lanka
2.2.2 Recovery plans on key caostal resort towns
2.2.3 During quiet times they upgarded hotel fcilities
3 Education
3.1 Damage was caused to 108 schools - primary and secondary school
3.1.1 Physical damage to.... Tools machinery, equiptment, books, library and funiture and other learning materials
3.2 91 school that were destroyed or damaged were located too close to the coast
3.3 Recovery strategy
3.3.1 Relief camps set up in about 275 undamged schools
3.3.2 Educational facilities were repaired wherever possible
3.3.3 Coastal schools were relocated
4 Health
4.1 Following the disasters, 92 local clinics, hospitals and drug stores were destroyed and damaged
4.1.1 Disruption to delivery of health care services and patient care
4.2 Several health secror personnel were killed by the tsunami
4.2.1 Gaps in service provision
4.3 Recovery strategy
4.3.1 Basic health care services and clean water made available to displaced people
4.3.2 Psycho-social needs of traumatised people
4.3.3 Reconstruction of health institution
5 Main information
5.1 9.0 richter scale - struck of the coast of Sumatra, indonesia. 67 aftershock
5.1.1 Largest 3 hours later after the first at 7.1 on richter scale Triggered series of tsunami waves radiated through the bay of bengal 500kms per hour Directly impacted coastal ares of Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Malaysia, the Maldives, Myanmar, Indonesia, Sri-Lanka, Somalia and Thailand
5.2 Waves struck on extremely long (1000km) coastal areas of S.L - across 13 district
5.2.1 Waves penetrated inland areas up to 500m Losses totalled around $1.5b (7% of GDP) Affected economic income & ethnic groups, both rich and poor NE region especially hard hit by tsunami - population still suffering from the effects of 20 years of civil war
6 Agriculture and livestock
6.1 Destruction of standing crops in fields, 2500 home gardens along the coastal belt
6.1.1 Washing away of parts of cashew and betal cultivation along the eastern coast
6.1.2 63,000 birds, 6,500 cattle and 31,000 goats killed Affected poor families Domestic animals serve as a safety net against vulnerability to crop failures Provided supplementary income Health and supplementary benefits
6.2 Entry of sea water to productive fields caused high levels of soil salinity
6.2.1 Farmers unable to grow crops in those soils for about 3-4 years until salinity was naturally washed away by seasonal monsoon rains
6.3 Agricultural infrastructure - damaged
6.4 Recovery strategy
6.4.1 Cash grants assistance and micro grant facilities available through community based fund mechanism to restart livelihood Rehabilitation of damaged structures & agriculture/ livestock service facilities Testing of salinity - affected agricultural fields by the dept. of agriculture & technical guidance
7 Housing
7.1 130,000 damaged houses estimated by the government
7.1.1 more than 99,000 of those - completely destroyed
7.2 Recovery strategy
7.2.1 Tsunami housing provided by gov. & NGO's cash grant and access to loans No construction on coastal zones and people relocated
8 Social infrastructure
8.1 (high death toll) 31,000 died in S.L, 15,000 injured, 443,000 displaced and millions indirectly affected
8.1.1 More women and children (9000 - orphaned) died more than men - away for work Speed at which everything happened - sheer devastation - traumatised many
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