Mind Map by charharrison, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by charharrison about 5 years ago


Overview of Cholera and treatment using ORT from AQA AS Biology Nelson Thornes book

Resource summary

1 Prokaryotic cells
1.1 'Before nucleus'
1.1.1 No nucleus or nucleolus
1.1.2 Only a diffuse area of nuclear material
1.2 Circular strands of DNA and a plasmid but no chromosomes
1.3 No membrane-bound organelles
1.4 Smaller 70S ribosomes
1.5 Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
2 Bacterial cell
2.1 Cell wall
2.1.1 Protects against mechanical damage
2.1.2 Excludes certain substances
2.1.3 Made of peptidoglycan
2.2 Capsule
2.2.1 Slime layers that protects bacterium
2.2.2 Sticks cells together
2.3 Cell-surface membrane
2.3.1 Differentially permeable membrane
2.4 Flagellum
2.4.1 Rigid, corkscrew shape
2.4.2 Movement
2.5 Circular DNA
2.5.1 Genetic information for replication
2.6 Plasmid
2.6.1 Genes to aid survival (antibacterial resistance)
3 Vibrio cholerae
3.1 Transmitted through water ingested and contaminated with faecal matter
3.2 Most killed in stomach acid
3.3 Produces a toxin
3.3.1 Causes loss of microvilli
4 Mechanism of infection
4.1 1. Bacterium enters the small intestine and flagellum propels itself into mucus
4.2 2. Produces a toxin made up of two parts
4.3 3. One part binds to specific glycoprotein receptors of epithelial cells
4.4 4. The other toxic part enters the cells and causes chloride channel ions to open
4.5 5. Chloride ions flow into lumen of the small intestine
4.6 6. This raises the cells water potential and lowers the lumen's water potential
4.7 7. Ions move into the epithelial cells from the surrounding tissues and blood due to conc. gradient and loss of chloride ions
4.8 8. Water moves by osmosis from the cells and other tissues into the lumen
5 Symptoms
5.1 Diarrhoea
5.2 Dehydration
5.3 Some show no symptoms
6 Treatment
6.1 Oral rehydration threapy
6.1.1 Makes use of alternative carrier proteins in epithelial cells
6.1.2 Stimulates sodium ion uptake
6.2 Drinking water is ineffective as intestine isn't absorbing water
6.3 Water
6.3.1 Rehydrate cells
6.4 Sodium
6.4.1 Make optimum use of sodium-glucose channel proteins
6.5 Glucose
6.5.1 Energy and sodium ion uptake
6.6 Potassium
6.6.1 Stimulate appetite
6.7 Other electrolytes
6.7.1 Prevent imblanace
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