sociology- family and households- functionalist/Marxist/new right

m.siddika98
Mind Map by m.siddika98, updated more than 1 year ago
m.siddika98
Created by m.siddika98 over 5 years ago
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AS level sociology Mind Map on sociology- family and households- functionalist/Marxist/new right, created by m.siddika98 on 04/25/2015.

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sociology- family and households- functionalist/Marxist/new right
1 functionalist view of family:
1.1 1) functionalists regard society as a system made up of key institutions which depend on each other and perform functions to meet the needs of the society. it is based on consensus which is shared values that are transmitted through socialisation to the next generation. one way of socialisation is through the family as it assists with social order within society and therefore is viewed positively.
1.1.1 Murdock- the family structure.
1.1.1.1 2) Murdock was a functionalist who looked at family structures amongst societies and argued that family was universal and performed four essential functions of the family.
1.1.1.1.1 sexual function- provides and satisfies the sex drive with the same partner which avoids disruption
1.1.1.1.2 reproductive function- reproduces next generation to continue the society.
1.1.1.1.3 socialisation of children- so norms and values are passed on.
1.1.1.1.4 economic functions- provides food and shelter
1.1.1.1.5 criticisms of Murdock:
1.1.1.1.5.1 however, Murdock ignores conflict and exploitation which is frequently evident in families.
1.1.1.1.5.2 many of these functions can be performed by other institutions or non nuclear family structure.
1.1.1.1.5.3 Marxists argue that family meets the needs of capitalism rather than members of society.
1.1.1.1.5.4 feminists see the family as serving the needs of men and oppressing woman.
1.2 parsons- fit thesis:
1.2.1 structure and function of the family will fit the needs of the society
1.2.2 pre industrial society- the extended family- at least three generations living under the same roof.
1.2.2.1 based on agrarian cultures where larger families lived and worked together in the same location on land of farming communities.
1.2.2.1.1 changed after industrialisation of society.
1.2.3 industrial society- the nuclear family.
1.2.3.1 a geographical mobile workforce: nuclear family serves the needs of economy as they are smaller so they can move around to take on work.
1.2.3.2 a socially mobile workforce- more technological developments so increasing number of important positions. status is achieved in modern society rather than ascribed like in extended family. the modern nuclear family leaves the extended family which avoids conflict and is better equipped than extended family so it can meet industrial needs. the nuclear family does not have any direct obligations or responsibilities towards extended families.
1.2.4 the family is characterised by a natural division of labour. the man has an instrumental role which involves being responsible for economic welfare of family and the woman plays an expressive role which involves being responsible for the socialisation od children and the emotional needs of the family.
1.2.4.1 the family has two essential functions- primary socialisation of children as they learn the norms and values of the society they live in. it also stabilises adult personalities as it provides a place where they can release and express their tensions after facing society.
1.2.5 criticisms of parsons-
1.2.5.1 was extended family dominant in pre industrial society? young and willmot found parents and children worked together as a family unit in small cottage industries such as weaving,
1.2.5.2 it is not necessary that the men have to be the breadwinner ror the woman have to play the emotional role as many men can also play the emotional role (lone parent families) and women can be breadwinners.
1.3 criticisms- functionalists have a too over consensual view of the family which ignore the conflict and other problems in families.
1.3.1 Marxist view the family as an instrument of the ruling class and raising the future workforce with right set of values which will ensure social reproduction. it meets the needs of capitalism and only benefits the ruling class as socialisation through family teaches children to be obedient and willing workers despite living in an unequal society.
1.3.2 it is too deterministic as is assumes all individuals are passive and therefore blindly adopt the society's values and norms from parents however this isn't always the case.
2 Marxist view of the family:
2.1 1) all key institutions such as family, education, media and religion work together to serve the interest of capitalism and ruling class instead of meeting the needs of individual members within the society. the family performs the function of ideological control- convincing the mass individuals that the unequal system is inevitable.
2.1.1 Engels- inheritance of property.
2.1.1.1 Engels- the economic production determines the structure of the family. the emergence of private property means that men have to be certain about the paternity of the child ao they can pass on their property (inheritance) therefore the patriarchal monogamous nuclear family
2.1.1.1.1 women's sexuality was controlled by men and women became a mere instrument In the production of children.
2.1.1.2 early classless societies were forms of primitive communism as there was no private property however society changed with the emergence of capitalism with a system of private ownership.
2.1.2 zaretsky: family is an illusion.
2.1.2.1 the family is a 'haven' from the brutal and exploitative world of capitalism were members can be themselves and enjoy a private life.
2.1.2.2 however, this is an illusion as it cannot meet the pressures of being the only refuge in a brutal society.
2.1.2.3 the family is a unit of consumption of capitalist goods and products.
2.2 Althusser- ideological state apparatus
2.2.1 family is a key institution which is part of the ISA to promote capitalism as equal to all. encourages conformity and obedience to capitalism as it is an agent of social control.
2.2.2 family socialises children into accepting hierarchy and inequality as inevitable.
2.3 Marcuse
2.3.1 Working class families are encouraged to pursue false needs in terms of the way capitalist consumerism bombards families with adverts selling latest consumer products. families are encouraged to judge themselves and others based on consumption patterns.
2.3.2 children fall under peer pressure and pester parents to make purchases
2.4 criticisms of Marxist view:
2.4.1 Marxists assume that the nuclear family is the dominant family form in modern society.
2.4.2 feminist reject the view of capitialism and believes that family serves the interests of men rather than capitalism.
2.4.3 functionalists say Marxists ignore the positive benefits of the family in terms of intimacy and support it offers the members.
3 the new right perspective-
3.1 believe the family is a self reliant structure rather than dependence on the state. the father has the breadwinning role and the mother has the emotional responsibilities in a family unit based on marriage.
3.2 the new right call for a return to family values based on traditional family structure.
3.3 modern state has undermined role of family and taken away responsibilities of family members and so a culture of welfare dependency has emerged.
3.3.1 they argue to cut benefits which would encourage individuals to work and be more responsible.
3.4 unmarried and single mothers have increased because state is willing to support them with benefits and provision of council housing.
3.5 murray- new right thinker believes that there is an underclass in society that have a deviant lifestyle and culture who are unemployed and welfare dependent including high rates of lone parents, criminality and unemployment.
4 feminism: emphasis the extent to which society is in several ways patriarchal and society is dominated by men who oppress and exploit women.
4.1 first wave of feminism- led by middle class women which resulted in: higher education for women. participation in exams, access to professions and improvements in divorced women rights.
4.2 second wave- equal pay for equal work, equal opportunities for education, free contraception and abortion demand.
4.3 like Marxists, feminists have a critical view of the family in relation to the gender inequality women experience in the family structure.
4.4 liberal feminism
4.4.1 reform in terms of campaigning against gender inequality such as the sex Discrimination and equal pay act which reflects changes in social attitudes in terms of gender relations- there is now more equality for women.
4.4.2 criticisms: - other feminists such as Marxists and radicals have criticised the liberal feminist reliance on reform.
4.5 Marxist feminism-
4.5.1 the main cause for women's oppression is capitalism. women produce, maintain and service the work force for capitalism as a form of unpaid domestic labour.
4.5.1.1 Breugal- women reproduce next generation of workers for the capitalist society.
4.5.1.1.1 Marxists argue a socialist revolution will bring equality for women
4.5.1.2 women are a reserve army of labour exploited within capitalist society.
4.5.1.3 women absorb anger as they take up anger and frustration of their husbands who work in the capitalist system.
4.5.1.4 criticisms- assumes male oppression and patriarchy will disappear with emergence of socialist society. radicals argue that patriarchy will exist unless male power is challenged.
4.6 radical feminism:
4.6.1 all societies are based on patriarchy and male oppression of women needs to be challenged. men are seen as the enemy who exploit women through unpaid labour and sexual services.
4.6.2 women need to overturn this and practise separatism and act independently.
4.6.3 practise political lesbianism.
4.6.4 criticism- sommerville argues that radicals fail to recognise the gains women have made in recent times in terms of jobs, divorce, marriage, cohabitation. heterosexual attraction will rule out separatism and disappearance of nuclear family.
4.7 difference feminism-
4.7.1 argue that other feminists assume most women live in nuclear families and share common life experiences.
4.7.1.1 however, it is wrong to generalise like this as different women (class, sexuality and ethnicity) may have different experiences in family and society in general.
4.7.2 criticisms-
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