Chemistry EMPA

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revision for the empa

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Chemistry EMPA
  1. Inorganic Tests
    1. Nitrates
      1. add Fe(II) Chloride + c. sulfuric acid
        1. no brown ring
          1. brown ring if nitrate present
        2. Halide Ions
          1. add silver nitrate + nitric acid
            1. CL-, white ppt
              1. Br-, cream ppt
                1. I-, yellow ppt
                  1. add Ammonia
                    1. Cl-, redissolves w/ dilute
                      1. Br-, redissolves w/ conc.
                        1. I-, doesn't dissolve
                    2. Sulfate Ions
                      1. add acid to remove carbonate ions
                        1. add barium nitrate or chloride
                          1. white ppt
                            1. n.v.c
                        2. Flame Tests
                          1. Cu, blue-green
                            1. Na, yellow
                              1. Sr, scarlet
                                1. K, lilac
                                  1. Ba, apple-green
                                    1. Ca, brick-red
                                    2. Ammonium Ions
                                      1. heat w/ NaOH
                                        1. ammonia gas produced, v. smelly
                                    3. Organic Tests
                                      1. Halogenoalkanes
                                        1. heat with NaOH
                                        2. Phenols
                                          1. reagent X a.k.a Fe(III) Chloride
                                            1. yellow > purple
                                              1. Fe(III) Chloride is a yellowish solution
                                            2. Fehling's/ Benedict's
                                              1. Aldehydes, red-brick ppt
                                              2. Tollen's [Ag(NH3)2]+
                                                1. Aldehydes, silver mirror or black ppt
                                                2. Acidified potassium dichromate
                                                  1. primary or secondary alcohols or aldehydes, orange > green
                                                  2. Brady's
                                                    1. aldehyde or ketone, orange solution
                                                    2. Bromine Water
                                                      1. alkene, brown > colourless
                                                      2. Sodium hydrogencarbonate
                                                        1. acid, effervescence
                                                          1. gas turns lime water cloudy
                                                      3. Transition Metals
                                                        1. Aspirin
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