The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms

rebecca.clarence
Mind Map by rebecca.clarence, updated more than 1 year ago
rebecca.clarence
Created by rebecca.clarence over 6 years ago
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Greek World 1B Mind Map on The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms, created by rebecca.clarence on 04/27/2015.

Resource summary

The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms
  1. Alexander dies and monarchy becomes the dominant form of ruling in the areas his empire gets split into
    1. Successors (Diadochoi) copy his ruling style - aspire to be likened to him - and Macedon had a king
      1. Empire still needs consolidation
        1. No heir - empire goes to generals and comrades
          1. Confusion and conflict - who leads?
            1. He had made no provision for succession
            2. Half brother Arrhidaeus (Philip III) becomes king (mental disability)
              1. Killed by Olympias (Alexander's mother) in 317 BC
                1. Ruled 323 - 317 BC
                  1. Figurehead, reigned but didn't rule - Perdiccas is regent of the empire
                    1. Very important general of Alexander
                  2. Provision made for his unborn child if male (Alexander IV) to be co-regent with Philip III when he came of age
                    1. Killed by Cassander in 310/309 BC - Cassander was meant to protect him but didn't want a challenger for power and people had begun to put faith in Alexander's son
                  3. Successors of Alexander
                    1. Babylon Settlement 323 BC
                      1. Half-brother Arrhidaeus made figurehead king of Macedon and provision made for male heir Alexander IV to be co-regent when he came of age
                        1. Perdiccas becomes regent of the empire - de facto master of the empire
                          1. 3 years until 320 BC
                            1. Fights Ptolemy after Ptolemy conquers beyond his satrapy and hijacks Alexander's funeral and buries the body in Egypt
                              1. Whoever buries the body is the successor
                                1. Ptolemy supported by Antipater and Craterus
                                  1. Loses a lot of troops - poor tactics, harsh leadership - and is assassinated by his own soldiers
                                    1. Ptolemy is popular and fair and is offered regency - he refuses - not over ambitious or arrogant
                                2. Craterus becomes "protector of kings" - nominal, little power
                                  1. Antipater is viceroy in Europe, master of Macedon and Greece
                                    1. Appointed regent after Perdiccas dies and Ptolemy refuses
                                      1. Appoints Antigonus to be royal general in Asia and wipe out Perdiccas supporters
                                        1. Appoints son, Cassander, to be Antigonus 2nd in command to control power
                                        2. Dies in 319 BC and Polyperchon is made regent
                                          1. Cassander rebels and allies with Antigonus
                                            1. Antigonus defeats and kills Eumenes; expels Seleucus from Babylon
                                              1. Ptolemy takes Seleucus in and sponsors him to retake Babylonia; both defeat Antigonus sons' at Gaza
                                                  1. Seleucus retakes Babylon and Upper Satrapies 311 - 306 BC
                                                    1. Demetrius (son) and Antigonus beat Ptolemy in Cyprus at Salamis 306 BC - declare themselves kings
                                                      1. Thereafter all successors declare kingship - separate from Macedonian royal house
                                                  2. Gains upper hand in Greece and Macedon
                                                    1. Peace of dynasts 311 BC
                                                      1. Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimarchus and Antigonus come to terms; Cassander is general of Europe and looks after Alex IV, the kings retain their respective lands and Antigonus is first in Asia - none keep their terms
                                                        1. Cassander kills Alexander IV and his mother - no longer a threat as blood relative to Alexander
                                                  3. Allies with Eumemes (friend of Perdiccas) and Olympias
                                                    1. Olympias kills Arrhidaeus and his wife
                                                1. Satrapies distributed - Persian method - all eventually become king
                                                  1. Ptolemy (Egypt)
                                                    1. Lysimachus (Thrace)
                                                      1. Antigonus (Phrygia)
                                                        1. Seleucus (Babylonia)
                                                      2. Key features of Hellenistic monarchy
                                                        1. Diadem - headband - used from start to end of Hellenistic age
                                                          1. Symbol of kingship - marked them out as kings
                                                          2. Definitions of monarchy changed
                                                            1. Not based on traditional ideas of descent and legitimacy (until later) but the ability to handle an army and affairs
                                                            2. Reciprocal relationship between kings and cities
                                                              1. Freedom and democracy did not die out - negotiated in different ways
                                                                1. Kings could not just impose their will - needed support of cities
                                                                  1. Cities also needed things - military protection, financial benefaction, help with conflicts - conciliatory not dominated
                                                                  2. Formal framework of leadership over Greek cities
                                                                  3. Title: Basileus
                                                                    1. All early Hellenistic kings founded new cities
                                                                      1. New centres of royal control
                                                                        1. Imprinting a royal identity on their new landscape of empire
                                                                      2. Narrative 306-301 BC and aftermath
                                                                        1. Antigonus' and Demetrius' failed invasion of Egypt 306 BC
                                                                          1. Demetrius' failed invasion of Rhodes 305 BC
                                                                            1. Antigonus and Demetrius reform Hellenic League 302 BC
                                                                              1. Battle of Ipsus 301 BC - Cassander, Lysimarchus and Seleucus converge on Asia Minor
                                                                                1. Antigonus dies, Demetrius flees, victors share Asia Minor
                                                                                  1. Demetrius retakes Athens and Macedon in 294 BC but is captured by Seleucus 285 BC and dies in captivity 282 BC
                                                                                    1. Cassander dies 297 BC - sons fight over succession and destroy dynasty
                                                                                      1. Lysimarchus and Pyrrhus take Macedon and divide it
                                                                                        1. Lysimarchus dies fighting Seleucus 281 BC
                                                                                          1. Seleucus assassinated in 281 BC by Ptolemy Keraunos, son of Ptolemy I, succeeded by son Antiochus I
                                                                                            1. Antiochus takes Macedon and has power over Greece 276 BC
                                                                                        2. Ptolemy dies 282 BC of natural causes - dynasty lasts until 30 BC
                                                                                    2. Post 276 BC; Attalids rise in late 3rd century in Asia Minor; King/city relationships remain pivotal; kingdoms are international centres of power - diverse and multicultural; major powers in Eastern Med until the rise of Rome in the 2nd century
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