Lung Disease

Mind Map by LaraPartridge, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by LaraPartridge over 6 years ago


Lung disease: pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis, asthma and emphysema

Resource summary

Lung Disease
  1. Pulmondary Tuberculosis
    1. Transmission by droplet infection
      1. Close contact
        1. care homes
          1. People who are from countries where Tb is common
            1. Reduced Immunity
            2. Course of Infection
              1. Primary Infection (children)
                1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is inhaled
                  1. Bacteria grow and divide in upper region of lungs (lots of O2)
                    1. Phagocytes accumulate at infection to ingest mycobacterium tuberculosis
                      1. Immune response makes are inflamed and lymph nodes are enlarged
                      2. Post-primary infection (adults)
                        1. Some bacteria may remain from the primary infection and later re-emerge.
                          1. Occurs in the upper region of the lungs
                            1. The bacteria destroy the lung tissue
                              1. The body tries to repair lung tissue and makes scar tissue as a result.
                            2. Symptoms
                              1. Coughing up damaged tissue containing blood and bacteria
                                1. loss of appetite -) weight loss
                                  1. Tiredness
                                    1. Fever
                                    2. Prevention and Control
                                      1. Vaccination
                                        1. BCG vaccine
                                          1. Attenuated mycobacterium bovis
                                        2. Social and Economic methods
                                          1. Better education
                                            1. more and better housing
                                              1. Improved health facilities and treatments
                                                1. Better nutrition to aid immune sytems
                                                2. Drugs
                                                  1. Disadvantages
                                                    1. Resistance to drugs
                                                      1. Longs course (6-9 months)
                                                3. Pulmonary Fibrosis
                                                  1. What is it?
                                                    1. Irreversible thickening of the lungs due to scar tissue
                                                      1. The diffusion pathway is lengthened
                                                        1. the diffusion of oxygen is less efficient, making ventilation difficult
                                                          1. The volume of the lungs is reduced
                                                            1. The elasticity of the lungs is reduced
                                                              1. Reducing the force of expulsion
                                                            2. Symptoms
                                                              1. Shortness of breath
                                                                1. Due to decreased volume
                                                                  1. Due to increased length of diffusion pathway
                                                                    1. Due to loss of elasticity making it hard to maintain a diffusion gradient
                                                                    2. Chronic, dry cough
                                                                      1. Due to the body's reflex reaction to fibrous tissue stuck in the airways
                                                                        1. 'Dry' because fibrous tissue is immovable.
                                                                        2. Pain and discomfort in chest
                                                                          1. Due to the pressure on fibrous tissue
                                                                            1. Due to the damage
                                                                            2. Weakness and fatigue
                                                                              1. Due to a reduced intake of oxygen into the blood reducing the amount of energy produced by respiration
                                                                          2. Asthma
                                                                            1. What is it?
                                                                              1. localised allergic reaction
                                                                                1. Pollen, animal fur,dust mite faeces
                                                                                2. White blood cells on the lining of the bronchi/bronchioles release histamine...
                                                                                  1. Histamine inflames the lining of airways
                                                                                    1. Histamine causes epithelial cells to secrete more mucus.
                                                                                      1. Histamine causes fluid to enter the airways
                                                                                        1. Histamine causes bronchiole muscle to contract, constricting the bronchiole
                                                                                        2. Overall, a greater resistance to the flow of air
                                                                                          1. It's hard to ventilate lungs, so hard to maintain a diffusion gradient
                                                                                            1. Genetic
                                                                                            2. Symptoms
                                                                                              1. Difficulty breathing
                                                                                                1. Due to constricted bronchi, excess mucus/fluid and inflamed linings
                                                                                                2. Wheezing when breathing
                                                                                                  1. Due to air passing through constricted bronchi(oles)
                                                                                                  2. Tight chest
                                                                                                    1. Due to not being able to ventilate the lungs properly because of the constricted bronchi(oles)
                                                                                                    2. Coughing
                                                                                                      1. A reflex response to obstructed bronchi.
                                                                                                  3. Emphysema
                                                                                                    1. What is it?
                                                                                                      1. induced by smoking
                                                                                                        1. Can only be diagnosed once the lungs are irreversibly damaged
                                                                                                          1. Elastin of lungs has been permanently stretched
                                                                                                            1. Sufferer is no longer able to expel all of the air from the alveoli
                                                                                                              1. The surface area of the alveoli is reduced and they can burst
                                                                                                                1. Little gaseous exchange can take place
                                                                                                                2. Symptoms
                                                                                                                  1. Shortness of breath
                                                                                                                    1. Due to difficulty exhaling air because of the reduced elasticity of the lungs and reduced surface area.
                                                                                                                    2. Chronic cough
                                                                                                                      1. Due to the body's effort to remove damaged tissue and mucus because the cilia have been destroyed.
                                                                                                                      2. Blue skin
                                                                                                                        1. Due to low levels of oxygen in the blood.
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