Brittney Fuller
Mind Map by Brittney Fuller, updated more than 1 year ago
Brittney Fuller
Created by Brittney Fuller over 6 years ago


second six weeks project

Resource summary

  1. ATOMS
    1. Definition
      1. basic unit of matter
        1. cannot be created or destroyed
        2. Parts of an Atom
          1. Proton
            1. positively charged subatomic particle; found in nucleus; has mass
            2. Neutron
              1. Isotope- two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons
                1. neutrally charged subatomic particle; found in nucleus; has mass
                2. Electrons
                  1. Ion- a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
                    1. negatively charged subatomic particle; found in electron cloud; no mass
                3. BOHR MODEL OF HYDROGEN
                  1. What is it?
                    1. Bohr Model- a basic model of an atom to show placement of protons, neutrons and electrons
                      1. Bohr Models are unreliable because they are 2D reps of a 3D object, and electron are too small and fast to predict the actual location
                      2. How to read ?
                        1. As electrons jump from excited state to a ground state, they release energy in waves
                          1. Ground State- lowest energy level
                            1. Excited state- energized electron
                              1. Energy released falls under electromagnetic spectrum
                            2. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
                              1. Read from left to right; helps to locate elements, like a road map or grid coordinates
                                1. Key- #: row; Letter: block; Superscript: # of elements over
                                  1. Example- Electron Configuration of Iron (Fe): 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^6, 3s^2, 3p^6, 4s^2, 3d^6
                                    1. Noble Gas Notation
                                      1. Start from last Noble Gas passed as a way to shorten it
                                        1. Example of Selenium (Sn): [Kr] 5s^2, 4d^10, 5p^2
                                      2. VSEPR
                                        1. What is it?
                                          1. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
                                            1. 3-D arrangement of molecules in an atom
                                              1. The repulsion of valence electrons cause electrons to configure as far apart as possible
                                                1. Determined by the number of pairs bonded to the central atom and the amount of LONE PAIRS
                                                  1. Lone pairs- extra electrons on the central atom that does not bond with another atom
                                                2. Polarity- uneven pull on the central atom resulting in a partial positive and negative charge
                                                3. PERIODIC TABLE
                                                  1. How to read?
                                                    1. Groups- vertical columns (18)
                                                      1. Group 1- Alkali Metals
                                                        1. Group 2- Alkaline Earth Metals
                                                          1. Group Three- Transition Metals (inner/outer/post)
                                                            1. Group 4- Metalloids
                                                              1. Group 5- Non Metals
                                                                1. Group 6- Halogens
                                                                  1. Group 8- Noble Gases
                                                                  2. Periods- horizontal rows (7)
                                                                  3. Periodic Trends
                                                                    1. Atomic Radii
                                                                      1. the radius of an atom from the nucleus to the edge of electron cloud
                                                                        1. Increases from right to left; top to bottom
                                                                        2. Electronegativity
                                                                          1. describes the ability of an atom to attract new electrons to make new elements
                                                                            1. increases from left to right; bottom to top
                                                                            2. Ionization Energy
                                                                              1. describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom
                                                                                1. increases from left to right; bottom to top
                                                                                2. Electron Affinity
                                                                                  1. applies to noble gases
                                                                                    1. neutral atom's likelihood to gain an electron
                                                                                      1. increases from left to right; bottom to top
                                                                                    2. Oxidation Numbers
                                                                                      1. represents the number of electrons lost (or gained, if the number is negative) by an atom of that element in the compound.
                                                                                        1. 1+, 2+, 3+, +/- 4, 3-, 2-, 1-, 0
                                                                                      2. BONDING
                                                                                        1. Chemical Bonding- mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms
                                                                                          1. Covalent Bond
                                                                                            1. Between two non metals
                                                                                              1. low melting point; low boiling point
                                                                                                1. Ex: Carbon Dioxide
                                                                                                2. Ionic Bond
                                                                                                  1. between a metal and nonmetal; across staircase
                                                                                                    1. high melting and boiling point
                                                                                                      1. Ex: NaCl (salt)
                                                                                                      2. Metallic
                                                                                                        1. between two metals; sea of electrons
                                                                                                          1. High melting and boiling point
                                                                                                        2. Octet Rule- bonds increase stability; must have 8 electrons except boron and beryllium and hydrogen
                                                                                                          1. Single bond<double bond< triple bond
                                                                                                          2. Lewis Structures
                                                                                                            1. show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons
                                                                                                          3. NAMING
                                                                                                            1. REACTION TYPES
                                                                                                              1. Synthesis
                                                                                                                1. Add/combine
                                                                                                                  1. A + B --> AB
                                                                                                                  2. Decomposition
                                                                                                                    1. break down
                                                                                                                      1. AB --> A + B
                                                                                                                      2. Single Replacemnt
                                                                                                                        1. A + BC --> AC + B
                                                                                                                          1. Use Activity Series- on RT, elements can replace elements below it or less reactive than it
                                                                                                                          2. Double Replacement
                                                                                                                            1. swap
                                                                                                                              1. AB + CD --> AD+ CB
                                                                                                                              2. Combustion
                                                                                                                                1. O2= reactant
                                                                                                                                  1. Products are ALWAYS CO2 and H2O
                                                                                                                                2. BALANCING EQUATIONS
                                                                                                                                  1. Steps: 1. Draw line at yield sign 2. write out all ATOMS present on both sides 3. Count number for each side 4. Apply coefficients to even out score (oxygen last) 5. Check answer 6. Write ratio
                                                                                                                                    1. Coefficients- numbers at the front of each atom
                                                                                                                                      1. Law of Conservation of Mass- matter cannot be created, nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
                                                                                                                                        1. Predicting Products- writing the product based off of the type of reaction; girls and boys are always paired
                                                                                                                                        2. STOICHIOMETRY
                                                                                                                                          1. Calculation of certain quantities of reactions in a chemical reaction
                                                                                                                                            1. Types
                                                                                                                                              1. 1. Moles to Moles
                                                                                                                                                1. 2. Moles to Mass
                                                                                                                                                  1. 3. Mass to Moles
                                                                                                                                                    1. 4. Grams to Grams
                                                                                                                                                    2. Dimensional Analysis- step by step manner used to solve any problem using units and numbers and times/divide method
                                                                                                                                                      1. Moles- 6.02 x 10^23 particles of stuff
                                                                                                                                                        1. Avagadro's Number- 6.02 x 10^23
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