Organisations, Movements and Members

Lucy Rutherford
Mind Map by Lucy Rutherford, updated more than 1 year ago
Lucy Rutherford
Created by Lucy Rutherford over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Organisations, Movements and Members, created by Lucy Rutherford on 05/04/2015.

Resource summary

Organisations, Movements and Members
  1. Types of Religious Organisation
    1. New Religious Movements
      1. Wallis - huge increase in the number of NRMs E.G Scientology, Unification Church (Moonies) leading to the creation of a typology based on their relationship to the outside world
        1. World Rejecting
          1. Have a clear vision of God and are highly crituical of the outside world, seeking radical change. Force members to take a break from their former lives, control all aspects of the communal group, have been accussed of brainwashing E.G Branch Davidians

            Annotations:

            • Similar to Troelch's definition of Sects
          2. World Affirming
            1. Lack the conventional features of a religion, seen as a business model with follower as customers practising beliefs on a part time basis as collective worship is not required. They are optimistic and offer followers success in their goals. Accept the world as it is described as "psychologising religion." Provides access to spiritual or supernatural skills that can unlock members inner potential.
            2. World Accommodating
              1. Breakaways from existing churches, they neither accept or reject the world and focus on religious rather than worldly matters. Members lead conventional lives E.G neo-Penetcoastalists
              2. Evaluation - Wallis ignores diversity of beliefs that exist within NRMs. His typologies are useful when analysing and comparing features of NRMs
              3. Stark and Banbridge - reject Wallis' typology all together beleiving we should distinguish between religious organisations based on the degree of conflict or tension they have with wider society
                1. Sects - the result of schisms (splits) in existing churches or denominations as they disagree of elements of the doctrine. Offer "other worldly" benefits (a place in heaven) to people suffering from economic/ethical deprivation.
                  1. Cults - new religons which promise "this worldly" benefits (good health) to more prosperous individuals who suffer from psychic deprivation (normlessness) and organismic deprivation (health issues)
                    1. Subdivision of Cults depending on their level of organisation
                      1. Audience Cults - least organised with no formal membership or commitment. Little interaction between member with possible media participation E.G Astology
                        1. Client Cults - based on a consultant/client relationship with "therapies" promising personal fullfilment and self discovery E.G palm readers
                          1. Cultic Movements - most organised demanding a high level of commitment of formal membership. Aims to meet all members religous needs and rarely allows followers to belong to other religions E.G the Moonies
                            1. Client Cults can become Cultic Movements when lead by their most enthusiastic members. Make useful distinctions between organisations but using the degree of conflict as a measurement scale results in few actually fitting into just one category.
                      2. Troeltsch
                        1. Churches - are large organisations with millions of members , they place few demands on them and have a bureaucratic hierarchy. Claim to have a monopoly of truth with ideological conservative beliefs closely linked to the state
                          1. Sects - are small exclusive groups which demand real commitment from there members. Are hostile to wider society and recruit from poor or oppressed backgrounds. Lead by charismatic leaders they aso believe they have a monopoly of truth
                          2. Neibuhr
                            1. Denominations - a midway between churches and sects as membership is less exclusive because they accept societies values but are not linked to the state. Impose minor restrictions on followers however they are tolerant of other religions and not as demanding as sects
                              1. Cults - They are highly individualistic, small loose knit groups. Members share the same interests or themes and are lead by "practitioners" or therapists" who claim to have special knowledge.
                              2. Wallis - notes the similarities and differences between these types of religious organisations.
                                1. How They See Themselves - Churches and Sects claim that their interpretation of the faith is the only legitimate one. Denominations and Cults accept other interpretations maybe valid
                                  1. How They See Wider Society - Churches and Denominations are respected and "legitimate" where as Sects and Cults are viewed as deviant.
                                    1. Evaluted by Bruce - these categories don't fit today's reality as Churches have lost religious monolpy since the 16th Century with their massive imposing cathedrals being replaced by Sects and Cults as religious diversity is the norm. This has meant most Churches have been reduced to Denomination status
                                  2. Explaining the Growth of Religious Movements
                                    1. Marginality
                                      1. Weber - Sects appeal to disprivileged groups which don't receive economic rewards or social status. Offer a solution to this problem by giving members a theodicy of disprivilege, a religious explanation for their suffering. Usually under the guise of "misfortunte is a test of faith," evidence is found in the Nation of Islam recruiting young disadvantaged Blacks in America
                                      2. Relative Deprivation
                                        1. M/C people may not be phsycially deprived E.G in poverty but feel spiritually deprived as they lack moral value in today's materialistic world. Drawn to Sects as they offer a sense of community.
                                          1. Stark and Banbridge - break away from Churches to form Sects in order to safeguard the organisations original message. World Rejecting Sects offer the compensators that will reward those that are deprived from the needs they are denied. Whilst World Accepting Churches allow the privileged to express their status bring them closer to achieving earthly rewards. - Similar to Wallis' distinction between New Religious Movements
                                        2. Social Change
                                          1. Wilson - periods of rapid change disrupt and undermine etablished norms and values producing anomie. The response to this uncertainity is for people to turn to Bruce - the growth of Sects is just a reaction to social changes involved in modernisation and secularisation. Because of this secularisation people are deterred from traditional Churches and strict Sects so turn to cults as they are less demanding requiring fewer sacrifices.
                                          2. Growth of New Religious Movements (NRMs) reflects social change
                                            1. World Rejecting - (Wallis) the social changes since the 1960s has impacted young people giving them more freedom from adult responsibilities. A counter culture was developed as NRMs offered a realistic way of life. (Bruce) the failure of the counter culture to change the world led the disillusioned youth to turn to religion.
                                              1. World Affirming - (Bruce) a response to modernisation mainly to the rationalisation of work. It no longer provides a source of identity unlike the Protestant Ethic. However we are still expected to achieve even though most people lack the opportunities to succeed. These NRMs offer a sense of identity and techniques which promise success.
                                              2. Dynamics and Development of Sects
                                                1. Niebuhr - Sects are world rejecting organisations that come into existence because of a schism. Usually over a disagreement of the religious doctrine. Sects are short lived and either die out or abandon such extreme ideas to become a denomination. 2nd Generation - born into the Sects they lack the commitment and passion of their parents who consciously rejected the world. Protestant Ethic Effect - Sects practice asceticism to become prosperous and upwardly mobile. Members are then tempted to compromise with the world and leave the Sect or reject its beliefs. Death of a Leader - Sects with a charismatic leader either collapse after his/her death or a more formal bureaucratic leadership takes over creating a denomination.
                                                  1. Sectarian Cycle - Stark and Banbridge
                                                    1. Established Sects - Wilson not all Sects follow the cycle below it depends on which type they are. Conversionists - aim to convert a large number of people and are growing rapidly into formal denominations E.G Evangelicals. Adventist - they believe to be saved they must hold themselves separately from the surrounding corrupt world. Prevents a compromise being made and a denomination from forming. E.G Jehova's Witnesses Established - survived for many generations they succeed in socialising their children into a high level of commitment by keeping them apart from the wider world E.G Amish
                                                  2. Religiosity and Social Groups
                                                    1. Class - there has been a growth in sects with marginalised members E.G W/C people are more likely to join sects as they seem them as a solution to their problems.
                                                      1. Theodiacy of Dispriviledge - acts as justification of their suffering, evidence comes from the Nation State of Islam recruiting disadvantaged blacks in America.
                                                        1. These exaplanations only consider each class in isolation and doesn't account for why different classes turn to different religions
                                                          1. Relative Deprivation - the M/C join religious movements because they feel spiritually deprived, they lack moral value in such a materialistic world. Wallace - they turn to sects for a sense of community.
                                                          2. Age - the older a person is the more likely they are to attend religious services, however there are 2 exceptions. 1) under 15s - more likely to go to church because they are made to attend by their parents. 2) Over 65s - physically unable to attend because of sickness or disability.
                                                            1. Ageing Effect - people turn to religion as they get older because as they approach death; naturally become more concerned about the afterlife so are more likely to attend church as they dwell on their

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Heelas - people are more interested in spirituality with age
                                                              1. Generational Effect - religion becomes less popular with each new generation. Churches are full of older people because they grew up when religion was more popular. (socialised to be secular) Bruce - 30% of church goers are over 65
                                                                1. The Generational Effect is more significant than the Ageing Effect but is criticised by Pentecostal churches which continue to attract younger members. Is not age causing these differences in attendance between churches but perhaps what they offer to their members - Postmodernsim link
                                                              2. Ethnicity - In the UK the largest religion is Christianity although there are a significant amount of Muslisms, Hindus and Sikhs
                                                                1. Bruce - Cultural Defence, religion offers support in uncertain situations for ethnic minorities. Bird notes that religion acts as a basis for community solidarity and a way of preserving ones' cultur/language. A single race church maybe founded as a way of coping with racial oppression as all White churches may not actively welcome Caribbean Christians
                                                                  1. Herberg - Cultural Transition, a way of easing the movement from one culture to a new one. This can explain the high levels of religious participation seen among 1st generation American immigrants. However once the transition has been made into wider society the religion may loose importance with participation declining.
                                                                    1. Muslims and Black Christians vie religion as more important than Whites . But Black Christians are more likely than White Christians to be members of Pentecostal churches. 74% of Muslim's see religion as highly important in their lives but only 11% of White Anglicans agree with this statement
                                                                      1. Pryce - The African Caribbean community in Bristol demonstrates Cultural Defence and Transition, they developed Pentecostal beliefs, which provided them with values appropriate to the new world that they found themselves in. Whilst helping its members succeed by encouraging self reliance, giving mutual support and the hope of improving their situation.
                                                                        1. However other African Caribbens adopted a Rastafariansim reponse to soicety rejecting it as racist and exploitative
                                                                      2. Gender - more men are preists but women participate more in religious ceremonies. In 2008 1.8 million women were church goers but only 1.4 were male
                                                                        1. Miller and Hoffman - women are more religious because they show "religious qualities", they are socialised to be more obedient, passive and caring. Men who exhibit these qualities are more likely to be religious
                                                                          1. Glock, Stark and Banbridge - people may participate in religion becuase of the compensators for soical, orangismic and ethical deprivation they offer. Organismic Deprivation women are more likely to suffer ill health and seek healing through religion. Social Deprivation women are more likely to be poor so are attracted to sects because of the community spirit which they advertise. Ethical Deprivation women are morally conservative and regard they world as corrupt so join sects which share this view
                                                                            1. Evidence to suggest that women are leaving the church at a faster rate than men. Aged 30-45 a drastic decline of 16% between 1990-2005, most likely because of pressures at home, work and family which leaves little time for church attendance
                                                                              1. Women are closely associated with nature and healing so are attracted to New Age Movements. Heelas and Woodward - note that 80% of members in the Holisitic Milieu were female. These cults give women a higher status and greater self worth which they might not recieve elsewhere explaining why so many participate.
                                                                            2. New Age
                                                                              1. Heelas - estimates that there are 2,000 activities which encourage personal and spiritual development, 146,000 practitioners in the UK
                                                                                1. most are very loosely organised audience or cilent cults. Are extremely diverse and eclectic in their beliefs. Most well know include UFOs, medition as a form of alternative therapy and tarot readers.
                                                                                  1. 2 common themes which characterise the New Age 1) Self Spirituality - turned away from traditional "external" religions to find spirituality inside themselves. 2) Detraditionalisation - rejects authority of priests and sacred texts instead placing value upon personal experience with the belief we can discover the truth for ouselves.
                                                                                  2. Postmodernity and the New Age
                                                                                    1. Drane - New Age religions are popular because we now live in a postmodern society. A loss of faith in the meta narratives which claimed "truth" results in people turning to the New Age. As science promised a better world but delivered global warming and war, whilst Churches failed to meet individuals' spiritual needs the only logical place to turn is finding the truth within ourselves
                                                                                      1. Bruce -cirticses Drane and believe te growth of a New Age is actually part of late modernity. This is becuase modern society values inidividualism which is a key belief of the New Age. Those in expressive professions like soicals workers or artists which see human potential are drawn to the New Age as they offer similar views.
                                                                                        1. Heelas - the New Age is linked to modernity in 4 ways 1) source of identity - modernity society has fragmented relationship due to a varietyof roles were the New age offers a source of one a"authentic" identity. 2) consumer culture - created dissatisfaction as adverts promised perfection but never delivered it the New Age offers a different way of achieving perfection 3) rapid social change - modernity disrupts established norms creating anomie whilst the New Age provides a sense of certainity and truth (similar to Sects) 4) decline of organised religion - modernity lead to secularisation there are no alternative to New Age beliefs.
                                                                                          1. Bruce -the New Age are just softer versions of more demanding and self disciplined Eastern Religions. E.G Buddhism has been diluted for Western "consumers" similar to the pick and mix of spiritual shopping which reflects the consumerist ethos of capitalist soicety
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