B1 B2 B3

Lauren Healey
Mind Map by Lauren Healey, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on B1 B2 B3, created by Lauren Healey on 05/04/2015.

Resource summary

B1 B2 B3
1 Nucleus contains genetic material
1.1 Arranged into chromosomes (moles of DNA)
1.1.1 Gene short length chromosome // diff. versions of same called ALLELLE
1.1.1.1 Code for making proteins - diff characteristic.
1.1.1.1.1 STRUCTURAL - skin, hair, blood
1.1.1.1.2 FUNCTIONAL - digestive enzymes (amalyse)
1.1.1.2 GENOTYPE - genes it has PHENOTYPE - expressed
1.1.1.2.1 HOMOZYGOUS - Two same allele HETEROZYGOUS - Two diff allele
1.1.1.2.1.1 DOMINANT
1.1.1.2.1.2 RECESSIVE
1.1.2 Sex cells - 23 chromosome // from parents
1.1.2.1 Men - XY Chromsome
1.1.2.1.1 Testes // Testosterone
1.1.2.2 Women - XX Chromosome
1.1.2.2.1 Ovaries // Oestrogen
2 Genetic disorders caused by faulty alleles
2.1 CYSTIC FIBROSIS // Recessive Alleles
2.1.1 Respiratory probs // thick sticky mucus // chest infections // difficult digestion
2.1.2 1 in 25 Carriers
2.1.3 carrier or sufferer
2.2 HUNTINGDON'S // Dominant Alleles
2.2.1 Tremors // Memory loss // Poor concentration // Mood change
2.2.2 50% chance
2.2.3 late onset
2.3 Genetic Testing - embryo // children // adults
2.3.1 Pre-implantation genetic disorder
2.3.2 carry alleles for genetic disorders
2.3.3 not 100% accurate // misinterpreted or contaminated
2.3.4 not 100% safe // cause miscarriage
2.3.5 positive // all family tested? // false negative positive
2.3.6 terminate pregnancy // financial // coping // right to life
2.3.7 discrimination // employers // insurance
3 Clones are genetically identical organisms
3.1 Asexual
3.2 Embryo split
3.3 Artificial
4 Stems Cells - UNSPECIALISED
4.1 EMBRYONIC - any cell
4.1.1 muscle cells // insulin producing // nerves
4.2 ADULT - maintain repair old damage tissue
4.2.1 bone marrow transplant
4.2.1.1 sickle cell anaemia
5 Symptoms are caused by cell damage or toxins
5.1 Microorganisms reproduce quickly inside body (warm moist conditions)
5.1.1 Calculate grown of pop.
5.1.1.1 Number at start
5.1.1.2 how long it takes to reproduce
5.1.1.3 how long left to reproduce
5.1.2 Immune system fights off invading microbes
5.1.2.1 white blood cell detect 'foreign' // engulf & digest
5.1.2.1.1 antibodies specific to antigen
5.1.2.1.1.1 mark - other W.B.C
5.1.2.1.1.2 bind and neutralise
5.1.2.1.1.3 kill directly
5.1.2.1.1.4 memory cells stay around
5.1.3 Vaccination safe version of microorganism
5.1.3.1 Immunisation - dead / inactive antigens - memory cells
5.1.3.1.1 Epidemics prevented by vaccination
5.1.3.1.1.1 Side effects // Genetic diff - react diff
5.1.3.2 Antimicrobials inhibit of kill bacteria, fungi and viruses
5.1.3.2.1 M.O evolve - RESISTANT - mutation in DNA
5.1.3.2.1.1 Reproduce - gene pass on // more common
5.1.3.2.2 Drugs tested in lab
5.1.3.2.2.1 Human cells
5.1.3.2.2.1.1 Live mammal
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1 human volunteer
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1.1 Healthy - safe
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1.2 PLACEBO
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1.3 BLIND TRIAL
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1.3.1 DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL
5.1.3.2.2.1.1.1.3.1.1 OPEN LABEL TRIAL
6 Heart & blood cells supply blood to body
6.1 HEART // Right - deoxygenated to lungs // Left - oxygenated to body
6.1.1 Blood supplied to heart from coronary arteries from aorta
6.1.1.1 ARTERIES - blood away from heart // high pressure - strong elastic walls
6.1.1.2 VEINS - blood to heart // low pressure - lumen and valves
6.1.1.3 CAPILLARIES - exchange substance in blood // diffusion
6.1.1.4 Pulse rate measure BPM
6.1.1.4.1 DIASTOLIC - contract // SYSTOLIC - relax
6.1.1.4.1.1 H.B.P increase risk of heart disease
6.1.1.4.1.1.1 Fatty deposit restrict blood flow
6.1.1.4.1.1.1.1 Blood clot form
6.1.1.4.1.1.1.1.1 Coronary blocked no oxygen - heart attack
6.1.1.4.1.1.2 Poor Diet - high cholesterol / salt
6.1.1.4.1.1.3 Smoking - CO reduce O2 // Nicotine increase H.R
6.1.1.4.1.1.4 Stress
6.1.1.4.1.1.5 Drugs & Alcohol
7 HOMEOSTATIS - maintaining constant internal environment
7.1 Negative feedback counteracts change
7.1.1 ADH secreted from pituitary gland
7.1.1.1 Water - too high // less ADH // kidneys reabsorb less // more urine - dilute.
7.1.1.2 Water - too low // more ADH // kidneys reabsorb more // less urine - high conc.
7.1.1.3 Alcohol suppress - dehydration
7.1.1.4 Ecstasy increase
8 A species is a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring
8.1 Adapt to survive
8.1.1 Cacti - wax and spines // reduce water loss
8.1.2 Fish - gills // streamline // swim bladder
8.1.3 Natural selection - "Survival of the Fittest"
8.1.3.1 Competition // passed on
8.1.3.2 Rabbits
8.1.3.3 Selective Breeding - desired features
8.1.3.3.1 Cows
8.2 Life on Earth - 3500 million y.a.
8.2.1 Evolution - new species
8.2.1.1 Isolated // mutation // natural sel. // enivro
8.2.1.1.1 Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution
8.2.1.1.2 Lamarck - chara used lots - more developed
8.2.1.2 Biodiversity
8.2.1.2.1 Number of species
8.2.1.2.2 Genetic variation
8.2.1.2.3 Range of different types
8.2.1.2.4 KINGDOMS - bacteria, fungi, plant, algae, plants, animals
8.2.1.2.5 Interdependence - pop. inc / dec.
8.2.1.2.5.1 EXTINCTION - enviro. change // competition // disease // food web
8.2.1.2.6 Energy in Ecosystems
8.2.1.2.6.1 Sun - main source // photosynthesis - convert
8.2.1.2.6.1.1 Transfer - consumption // decay - dead n waste
8.2.1.2.6.1.1.1 Lost - respiration // heat (const. temp) // waste products
8.2.1.2.6.1.1.1.1 efficiency = energy available / energy was available x 100
8.2.1.2.6.2 CO2 powers photosynthesis
8.2.1.2.6.2.1 CO2 into glucose
8.2.1.2.6.2.1.1 eating passes compounds in food chain
8.2.1.2.6.2.1.1.1 Respiration releases CO2
8.2.1.2.6.2.1.1.1.1 Die n decompose - release CO2 from decomposers respiring
8.2.1.2.6.2.1.1.1.1.1 Combustion release CO2
9 Nitrogen need for growth proteins
9.1 Fixation - N2 into nitrates
9.1.1 Lightning
9.1.2 Fixing bacteria
9.1.3 Decomposer - proteins & urea to ammonia
9.1.3.1 Nitrifying - ammonia into nitrates
9.1.3.1.1 Denitrifying - nitrate to N2
10 Enviro. Change
10.1 Temp - Climate
10.2 Nitrate - Water
10.3 CO2 - Air
10.4 Air - Lichen // SO4 - no. - clean
10.4.1 Water - Mayfly // O2 - no.- clean
10.4.1.1 Water - Phytoplankton // Algal bloom
10.5 SUSTAINABILITY - meeting demands of today without harming enviro so future gens. can meet theirs
10.5.1 Renewable materials
10.5.2 Less energy
10.5.3 Less pollution
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