Mind Map by ashiana121, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ashiana121 over 4 years ago


A-Level AS AQA SOCIOLOGY Mind Map on GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACHIEVEMENT PART I, created by ashiana121 on 05/06/2015.

Resource summary

1.1 Girls do better than boys KS1-3
1.1.1 Especially in English however the gap in maths and science is narrower
1.2 At GCSE girls are around 10 percentage points ahead of boys
1.3 At AS and A level, girls are more likely to pass and get higher grades however the gap is narrower than GCSE
1.4 Girls even do better in traditional boys subjects like science
1.5 More girls than boys go into higher education
2 In the past, boys outperformed girls but since the 1980's girls have improved rapidly and now do better than boys in all areas of education
3 Reasons for girls improvements - External factors outside of the education system e.g home and family background. wider society, job market. Internal factors within schools and the education system such as the schools equal opportunities policies
4.1 Influence of feminism
4.1.1 Feminists have had an impact on womens rights and opportunities through campaigns to win changes in the law e.g equal pay, outlawing rape and divorce etc
4.1.2 Feminist ideas about independence and freedom from male domination have affected how girls view themselves and also their aspirations. As a result they are more motivated to do well in education
4.2 Changes in the family
4.2.1 Major changes in the family since the 70's Increase in the divorce rate - 40% marriages end in divorce More lone parent families, 990% of which are female headed More cohabitation and a decrease in first marriages Smaller families and more women staying single There changes have lead to women having more need and more opportunity to be more independent
4.3 Girls changing ambitions
4.3.1 Links to the influence of feminism Sharpe - interviewed girls in the 1970's and the 1990's Their aspirations shifted from "love, marriage, children. jobs" to "careers, independence, marriage etc" Francis - (2001) found that girls now have high career aspirations which required success in the education system
4.4 Changes in womens employment
4.4.1 There are now employment opportunities for women that were previously unavailable
4.4.2 This is due to the expansion of the service sector - traditionally an area of womens work
4.4.3 Womens employment has risen from under half married women in the 50's to about three quarters today
4.4.4 Changes in the law has improved the position of working women and gave them employment rights: Equal Pay Act Sex Discrimination Act
4.4.5 As a result these changes have given girls more incentive to see their future in terms of paid work and this creates motivation for them to gain qualification
5.1 Equal opportunities policies
5.1.1 Feminist influence - boys and girls are equally capable and should be given equal opportunities - this is now a social norm This has lead to educational policies aimed at giving girls and boys equal opportunities: GIST & WISE encourage girls into science, technology and engineering National Curriculum - girls and boys largely study the same subjects Meritocracy is a result of such policies Now that girls have more equal opportunities than the past they are able to do better
5.2 Role models
5.2.1 More female teachers and headteachers to provide positive, pro-educational role models to girls
5.2.2 "feminises" the education system and girls see educational success as a desirablefemale characteristic
5.2.3 Encourages girls to see school as a female "gender domain"
5.3 Coursework
5.3.1 Mitsos and Browne - girls do better in coursework than boys because they are more conscientious and better organised Girls mature earlier and can concentrate for longer
5.3.2 Introduction of coursework to the exam system has lead to a greater gender gap in achievement
5.4 Stereotypes in learning materials
5.4.1 Studies of reading schemes, textbooks etc IN THE PAST have shown that females were under-represented and portrayed as subordinate to male domestic roles or unsuited to certain subjects like science NOW sexist images have been removed - replaced with positive images of females which may raise girls self esteem and aspirations
5.5 Teacher attention
5.5.1 IN THE PAST studies have shown that teachers spent more attention on boys than girls NOW - French & French -boys and girls paid similar amounts of academic attention however boys more overall due to behaviour NOW - Francis - boys disciplined more harshly and teachers had lower expectations of them NOW - Swann - boys dominate class discussions but girls better at listening and cooperation - teachers like this - give them more attention and encouragement
5.6 Selection and league tables
5.6.1 Marketisation policies increase competition between schools Girls are more successful than boys, so they are more attractive to schools As a result girls are more likely to get places in top schools - receive a better education and achieve more
6.1 Literacy
6.1.1 Parents spend less time reading to sons than daughters Mothers read so its seen as a feminine activity
6.1.2 Boys leisure interests do not require communication and language skills
6.2 Globalisation and decline of traditional 'mens jobs'
6.2.1 Since the 80's globalisation has led to much industry relocating to developing countries This has led to a decline in UK manufacturing industries Coal mining Ship building Decline in male employment opportunities - identity crisis, loss of motivation and self esteem Many boys see little prospect in getting jobs and therefore are not motivated to succeed
6.3 Feminisation of schooling
6.3.1 Sewell - schools no longer nurture masculine traits e.g competition and leadership
6.3.2 Introduction of coursework disadvantages boys
6.3.3 1 in 6 primary school teachers are men, 60% of primary school boys have no lessons with men - may give boys the idea that school is a feminine activity
6.4 Lack of male role models at home
6.4.1 1.5 million female headed lone parent families No male role model to go out to work and support a family - boys see less value for employment and therefore for qualifications
6.5 Laddish subcultures
6.5.1 Peer pressure on boys to show their masculinity and anti-school attitude Francis - boys more concerned then girls about being labelled 'swots' as it threatens their masculine identity Francis - working class subculture sees non-manual work as womanish Epstein - pro-school working class boys were likely to be bullied, labelled 'gay' and verbally abused
6.5.2 As girls move into more 'masculine' areas such as paid work, boys become more laddish in an effort to identify themselves as non-feminine and this leads to underachievement
6.6 Policies to raise boys achievement
6.6.1 Using male role models and boys leisure interests to improve boys literacy skills and motivate them to succeed - Raising Boys, Reading Champions and Playing for Success
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