C1 C2 C3

Lauren Healey
Mind Map by Lauren Healey, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Healey
Created by Lauren Healey over 6 years ago
14
2

Description

Mind Map on C1 C2 C3, created by Lauren Healey on 05/07/2015.

Resource summary

C1 C2 C3
  1. C1
    1. Phase 1 - Volcanoes give out CO2. N & H2O
      1. Phase 2 - Photosynthesis & carbon locked
        1. Phase 3 - Complex organisms evolved
          1. Nitrogen -78%
            1. Oxygen - 21%
              1. Human activity
                1. Carbon dioxide
                  1. Carbon monoxide
                    1. Particulates
                      1. Sulfur dioxide
                        1. Impurities // acid rain
                        2. Nitrogen oxides
                          1. Monoxide - N2 & O2 - high temp
                            1. Dixoide - more O2
                              1. Acid rain
                      2. Argon - 1%
                  2. Fossil fuels are HYDROCARBONS
                    1. Burning fuels OXIDATION
                      1. H+O2 - H20
                        1. C +O2- CO2
                          1. Inc. CO2 inc. GREENHOUSE EFFECT
                            1. CO - incomplete // poisonous
                              1. Particulate - incomplete // soot
                          2. O2 lost REDUCTION
                        2. Reducing Pollution
                          1. Sulfur removed from flue // WET SCRUBBING
                            1. Seawater - dissolved // produce CO2, H2O & dissolved sulfate
                              1. Alkaline Slurry - sprayed // solid waste product
                              2. Catalytic Converter - CO into N & O (REDUCTION) // CO2 - (OXIDATION)
                                1. Legal limit on emissions - MOT
                                2. Biofuels (Carbon neutral)
                                  1. Renewable energy
                                  2. Electric batteries
                                3. C2
                                  1. All materials made up of chemicals
                                    1. Plants - wood // cotton
                                      1. Animals - wool // silk
                                        1. Synthetic - nylon // rubber
                                          1. Plastic - hard, strong, stiff, low density, mouldable
                                            1. Nylon fibres - soft, flexible, good tensile strength
                                              1. Rubber - strong but flexible, mouldable
                                                1. Depends on materials
                                                  1. Assess suitability
                                            2. Properties
                                              1. M.P
                                                1. Strength - resisting force
                                                  1. Stiffness - not bending
                                                    1. Hardness - difficult to cut
                                                      1. Density - mass per unit volume
                                                    2. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
                                                      1. Properties change as chain gets longer
                                                        1. Short - low B.P
                                                          1. Long - high B.P
                                                            1. Strong covalent bonds - C & H
                                                              1. Intermolecular forces diff. molecules
                                                                1. Heated - extra energy
                                                                  1. move - overcome forces - gas
                                                                    1. covalent - stronger // don't break
                                                                  2. Separated by FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
                                                                    1. Groups w/diff B.P
                                                                      1. Fraction - similar B.P
                                                                        1. petrol
                                                                          1. Naptha
                                                                            1. Kerosene
                                                                              1. Diesel
                                                                                1. Lubricating oil
                                                                                  1. Bitumen
                                                                                    1. Petrochemical fuels & lubes
                                                                                      1. Chemical synthesis - plastic, medicines, fertilisers
                                                                                        1. Less useful split - hydrocarbons & ethene for plastics
                                                                                  2. POLYMERISATION
                                                                                    1. Monomers join to make polymer
                                                                                      1. High pressure - polymer chains
                                                                                        1. Strong rigid - high-density polyethene
                                                                                          1. Light, stretchy - low-density polyethene
                                                                                            1. PVC strong durable- rigid or stretch
                                                                                              1. Heat resistant polymers
                                                                                                1. REPLACED NATURAL MATERIALS
                                                                                                  1. Plastic kettles
                                                                                                  2. Window frames
                                                                                                  3. Plastic bags
                                                                                                  4. Milk bottles
                                                                                                  5. Close - high density
                                                                                                    1. Spread - low density
                                                                                                    2. Weak - slide over // stretch easy // low MP
                                                                                                      1. Strong - cross links // hard stretch // high MP
                                                                                                        1. Increase length
                                                                                                          1. Add cross-linking agents
                                                                                                            1. Plasticisers (reduce forces)
                                                                                                              1. Crystalline (no branches)
                                                                                                  6. NANOPARTICLES
                                                                                                    1. Natural - sea spray // combustion
                                                                                                      1. Modification
                                                                                                        1. Plastic sport equip. - more durable, stronger, lightweight
                                                                                                          1. Silver nano - polymer fibres - antibacterial props.
                                                                                                            1. Health effects not fully understood
                                                                                                      2. C3
                                                                                                        1. Tectonic plates move away exposed mantle rises and solidifies
                                                                                                          1. Crust magnetised - swap direction
                                                                                                            1. Polarity
                                                                                                              1. Reversed polarity
                                                                                                                1. Pattern determine age
                                                                                                                  1. Fossils
                                                                                                                    1. Shells & ripples
                                                                                                                      1. Grains
                                                                                                                      2. Contains minerals
                                                                                                                        1. Limestone - CaCo3 // sedimentary // shells or erosion // cement through pores
                                                                                                                          1. Carbon - fossilisation // high temp & pressure
                                                                                                                            1. Salt - evaporation
                                                                                                                              1. Underground salt deposits (ancient seas)
                                                                                                                                1. Physical extraction
                                                                                                                                  1. SOLUTION MINING
                                                                                                                                    1. Water injected into deposit
                                                                                                                                      1. dissolve salt make BRINE
                                                                                                                                        1. Pressure forces BRINE surface
                                                                                                                                          1. BRINE stored in wells // refined
                                                                                                                                    2. Subsidence
                                                                                                                                      1. Burning fossil fuels
                                                                                                                                        1. Evaporate seawater
                                                                                                                                          1. Refined salt - flavour // preservative
                                                                                                                                            1. High blood pressure // stomach cancer // osteoporosis // renal failure
                                                                                                                                              1. Food Standard Agency
                                                                                                                                                1. GDA
                                                                                                                                                  1. Dept. Health - risk assessment // advise health
                                                                                                                                                    1. Still include - COST
                                                                                                                                                2. ELECTROLYSIS OF BRINE
                                                                                                                                                  1. Chlorine
                                                                                                                                                    1. CHLORINATION
                                                                                                                                                      1. Kills disease-causing m.o.
                                                                                                                                                        1. Prevents algae growth, bad taste & smells, remove discolouration
                                                                                                                                                          1. Inc. life expectancy - reduce diarrohoeal disease
                                                                                                                                                          2. OXIDATION - 4Hcl+O2 - 2Cl2 + 2H2O
                                                                                                                                                            1. Carcinogenic // cholera // gas - poisonous // liquid - chem burns
                                                                                                                                                          3. Hydrogen
                                                                                                                                                            1. Sodium Hydroxide
                                                                                                                                                              1. ALKALIS
                                                                                                                                                                1. Form OH- ions (aq)
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Acid + Hydroxide - Salt + Water
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Acid + Carbonate - Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Fat & Oil - Soap
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Neutralise acidic soil
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Natural dye bind to cloth
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Glass production
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Some chems, stay in enviro for long time
                                                                                                                                                                    1. DDT
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Can't be secreted
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Accumulated
                                                                                                                                                                      2. PCB leak
                                                                                                                                                                      3. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Choice of material
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Manufacture
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Using the product
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Product disposal
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Bleach
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Mercy used - TOXIC
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Asbestos - LUNG CANCER
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