A-Level Biology: Cell Division

cian.buckley+1
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A simple mind map for A-Levels Biology. It gives a simple explanation for division of cells.

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cian.buckley+1
Created by cian.buckley+1 over 5 years ago
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A-Level Biology: Cell Division
1 Cell Division
1.1 Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells by mitosis and meiosis
1.1.1 Replacement of the entire lining of your small intestine
1.1.2 Liver cells only divide for repairing
1.1.3 Nerve cells do not divide
2 Chromosomes
2.1 Long and thin for replication and decoding
2.2 Become short and fat prior mitosis
2.2.1 easier to separate due to compact form
3 Meiosis (reduction division)
3.1 During the production of sex cells (gametes) in animals
3.2 In spore formation which precedes gamete production in plants
3.3 Haploid gametes (sperm ovum) - sexual reproduction
3.4 DNA in a cell replicates only once, but cell divides twice
4 The Cell Cycle
4.1 Interphase
4.1.1 G1: Protein synthesis and growth (10 hours)
4.1.1.1 Preparation for DNA replication (e.g. growths of mitochondria)
4.1.1.2 Differentiation, only selected genes are used to perform different functions in each cell
4.1.2 S: DNA Replication (9 hours)
4.1.3 G2: short gap before mitosis, organelles and proteins for mitosis are made (4 hours)
4.2 G0
4.2.1 Resting phase (nerve cells)
4.3 M-Phase
4.3.1 Mitotic division of the nucleus (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)
4.3.2 Cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm)
5 Mitosis
5.1 Process of producing 2 diploid daughter cells with the same DNA by copying their chromosomes (clones)
5.2 Chromosomes can be grouped into homologous pairs
5.3 Mitosis occurs in:
5.3.1 Growth
5.3.2 Repair
5.3.3 Asexual replacement
5.3.4 Replacement of cells with limiting life span (red blood, skin cells)
5.4 Controlled process, cancers result from uncontrolled mitosis of abnormal cells
5.5 Division of the nucleus (karyokinesis) and the cytoplasm (cytokinesis) are two processes of mitosis
5.6 Division of cytoplasm after nucleus. Delayed if cells have more than one nucleus (muscle)
5.7 Active process that requires ATP
5.8 Phases
5.8.1 Prophase
5.8.2 Metaphase
5.8.3 Anaphase
5.8.4 Telophase

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