lacking the minimum
Roundtree- poverty line
Government agreed dividing point
between poverty and not in
+ Clear +Can compare
-not good for MEDC's
-Everyone's needs are
Generally accepted standard
af living in a specific place at a
Townsend- Deprivation index
List of 12 items he came up with in
order not to be in poverty
- Biased, his own cultural ideas. - not clear what some of the items
have to do with poverty. - out dated. - doesn't account for peoples
Who are in poverty?
almost half of ethnic minority children live
in low income houses. Low education=lack of
qualifications for better jobs. Racism=
unable to get better paid jobs. family type.
Unemployment=higher in minority ethnic
groups. low pay.
lone parent= higher number of kids in poverty. lack of work= unless all
adults in the family are in work children are likely to be poor. disability= I/4
of kids in poverty have at least one diabled parent. there is inadequet help
and polices supporting childcare. elderly likely yto be in poverty because of
unable to undertake paid employment. 4x
more likely to be unemployed. likely to be low
paid- employer discrimination.
low pay, minimum wage. immediate
gratification= no savings to fall back on.
temporary/unstable jobs. low education/
qualifications= low paid jobe.
More likely to be lone parents . low
paid part time work, ,miss out on work
place benefits. home workers = tied to
home by kids and low paid piece work.
likely to sacrifice standard of living for
kids. greater proportion in retirement
Cultural and material explanations,
Oscar Lewis, culture of poverty. own
norms and values, sense of fatalism,
accept they will always be poor so don't
do anything about it. immediate
gratification. children grew up with these
values and it got passed along.
culture. poor are lazy
inadequate who don't work
and rely on the welfare sate.
the welfare sate is too
generous and universal
benefits take money away
from the economy and
undermine the production of
Murray, new right underclass.
marked out by: high levels of
lone parenthood, crime& work
shy attitude. women only had
children they couldn't afford
because of the benefits they
Material constraints suggest its
the situation they are in which
makes them behave the way
they do not they other way
round. the welfare sate isn't
generous enough and with low
paid or even know jobs they cant
save for the future. if they were
given the materials such as
decent housing, good job ect any
apparent dependency culture
Cycle of deprivation, coates and
silburn. Poverty can lead to
further poverty. this builds up into
a vicious circle form which it is
hard to escape from and then it
carries on with their children
the welfare state
are to low to lift
people out of
Underclass, social democratic. Frank
Field, says it consists of
disadvantaged groups such as elderly
or diabled who are forced to rely on
state benefits which are to low to give
them an acceptable standard of
living. its a lack of opportunities and
jobs not their attitudes that's the
Approaches to poverty.
the most needed and
valuable jobs get higher pay.
poverty creates jobs eg
social workers. threat of
poverty make people do the
undesirable jobs. wouldn't
function without it.
decides the most
assumes poor have no
conflict between bourgeoisie&
proletariat. bourgeoisie exploit the
proletariat and keep wages down
because plenty of other people are
willing to take their job. capitalist
not all bourgeoisie
exploit proletariat eg.
benefits. not all
Redistribution of wealth
inheritance tax. capital gains
tax=intended to resduce profits
when dealing with proertys or
shares. income tax=payable on all
income, progressive. social welfare
benefits from the state.
why it failed. tax relief, tax avoidance(legal)
and evasion(illegal). failure to claim benefits.
began with the berverage report in 1942. 'cradle to
grave' . aimed to get rid of the five giants: idleness,
squalor, ignorance, disease & want. came into effect
on 5 july 1948 with the NHS.
family and friends ect.
for free. don't get any
recognition from the
charities, salvation army ect. rely on
donations and usually provide a cheeper
service for those in need. not everyone can
get it and they are not everyehwer.
profit making who charge for welfare eg spire, bupa. expensive so
not everyone can get it.
Minimum wage- new labour
housing for poor.
support for the
poor eg. sure start.
1979-1997 new right and
conservative- roll back the
welfare state by cutting benefits
and privatisation. income tax
reduced and more means testing.
highest poverty in Europe.
1997-2010 new labour. hand up not
hand out. increase benefit and
introduce minimum wage. child care,
sure start. help for most deprived
areas= reduction in child poverty.
2010-2015 condem coalition. cut
benefits. introduced universal
credits to simplify benefit
system. got rid of EMA. cut shore
before 1979- beverage
report 1942. NHS and
wealfare state set up
Means testing and universal.
have to pass an income test
in order to get benefits. only
get them if income is low
don't cost state
too much. stigma.
don't need but
Government should be responsible for
welfare. social inequalities threatens the
stability of society, there should be
progressive taxation. universal benefits.
neeed for more social cohesion
Newright or market libral
the 'nanny state'
self help. taxation
kepted to the
be means testd
and kept to the
very poor .
Inverse care law
spending is either
or spent in a way
where the middle
class gains the
They receive more spending per head on
health. make better use of services as
they are more confident. get more
spending per head on education as they
are more likely to stay on after school
leaving age. benefit more from spending
n roads and transport and they are more
likely to be commuters. benefit more
from tax relief on private pensions and
gap between rich an poor.
Tax: tax avoidance,
inheritance tax, foreign bank
Benefits cut in 2013, bedroom tax,
disability allowance cut. stricter
pay:minimum wage cut and mployers don't pay
higher. some jobs get paid more.
concepts: cycle of deprivation coatses and silburn- familie cant
get out of poverty. culture of poverty Oscar lewis- valus passed