The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  • EXCITEMENT FOR WAR THE WAR BEGINS EUROPEAN INTERVENTION WESTERN THEATRE FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON ULYSSES S. GRANT IN THE WEST UNION DRIVES INTO THE "    " SHILOH STONE'S RIVER (MURFREESBORO) EASTERN THEATRE SEVEN PINES SEVEN DAYS' BATTLE SECOND BULL RUN GENERAL McCLELLAN
  1. EXCITEMENT FOR WAR
    1. People went on picnics to watch Bull Run
      1. Thought the war would be ended with one glorious battle
      2. THE WAR BEGINS
        1. Battle of Bull Run (Manassass)
          1. Virginia-- July 21, 1861
            1. North- Irwin McDowell v.s. South- S-pierre Beauregard
          2. "Battle of Blunder" very shameful mistake
            1. North takes Henery Hill and believes the war is over
              1. Confederate Reinforcmeents arrive and General McDowell orders retreat.
                1. "Stonewall" Thomas Jackson
                2. "Battle of Blunders"
                  1. North and South lead to MANY mistakes
                3. Significance:
                  1. 1. South becomes over confident; could've taken Washington DC
                    1. 2. Battle Sobers the North and they prepare for a long war.
                      1. romanticism; war is real with death; southern boys fight.
                    2. Civil War first TOTAL WAR in history.
                      1. 1. First where major battles routinely involved 100,000 troops.
                        1. 2. Troops and war effort only sustained through the efforts of civilian society as a whole.
                          1. people back home working and sending support
                          2. 3. When Fighting had ended, few Americans had not been personally touched by the bloody conflict, and society had been fundamentally changed
                            1. Jacob's Dinner Table
                              1. many family trees were cut off during the Civil War
                                1. 600,000
                              2. North Changes Leadership
                                1. 1. Geoarge McClellan -- "Little Napoleon"
                              3. EUROPEAN INTERVENTION
                                1. Secretary of State Seward
                                  1. Warned European Countries against interfering with America's internal affairs
                                  2. WESTERN THEATRE
                                    1. South -- Albert Sidney Johnston in charge,
                                      1. Henry Halleck -- Northern commander in West
                                      2. FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON
                                        1. Ulysses S. Grant -- General ordered to take forts. Simon Buckner -- Confederate commander at Donelson.
                                          1. Grant demands an "Unconditional Surrender"
                                            1. Buckner gave up and was taken prisoner
                                            2. Importance of Fort Donelson
                                              1. 1. First major Northern Victory
                                                1. 2. Opened Tenn. for Union invasion.
                                                  1. 3. Grant becomes important Union General!
                                                2. UNION DRIVES INTO THE " "
                                                  1. North-- U.S. Grant v.s. Albert S. Johnston
                                                  2. SHILOH
                                                    1. GENERAL LEW WALLACE (HOOSIER) (BEN HUR)
                                                      1. Tennessee April 6-7, 1862
                                                        1. Grant's army surprised by Johnston and almost overran the first day.
                                                          1. "Hornet's Nest" (the bullets flying like hornets)
                                                            1. grove of tress defended by Union that if lost would've opened the flank (side or rear of a position) of the Union Army (South)
                                                            2. Johnston's Death: shot in thigh with mini ball and bled to death (Beauregard takes over)
                                                              1. Bloody Pond"
                                                                1. 1. Undeclared area of truce about the land size of BHS where doctors would work on ALL soldiers
                                                                  1. 2. "flood"
                                                                    1. Still Americans
                                                                    2. Significance:
                                                                      1. 1. Loss of Johnston
                                                                        1. 2. North turns defeat into victory!
                                                                      2. STONE'S RIVER (MURFREESBORO)
                                                                        1. Tennessee December 31,1862
                                                                          1. North-- William Resorcan's South-- Braxton Bragg
                                                                            1. Bloodiest one day in the West: 25,000 (Casualties: 14N, 11S)
                                                                              1. 1. Casualties: killed, wounded, or missing
                                                                            2. EASTERN THEATRE
                                                                              1. Stalemate! --- the North and South are tied!!!
                                                                              2. SEVEN PINES
                                                                                1. Joe Johnston (South) wounded and gives LEE (Robert E. Lee) chance to command!
                                                                                2. SEVEN DAYS' BATTLE
                                                                                  1. Virginia June 25 - July 1,1862
                                                                                    1. North-- George McClellan vs South-- LEE (aided by "Stonewall")
                                                                                      1. Lee Attacked McClellan 7 consecutive days
                                                                                        1. Southern victory; saved Richmond from capture
                                                                                          1. McClellan replaced by John Pope.
                                                                                          2. SECOND BULL RUN
                                                                                            1. Virginia Aug. 29 - 30, 1862
                                                                                              1. North-- John Pope vs South-- Lee
                                                                                                1. Southern victory; McClellan again takes over
                                                                                                  1. Lincoln comes under criticism.
                                                                                                    1. 1. Lincoln keeps switching leaders
                                                                                                      1. 2. North Keeps loosing battles
                                                                                                    2. GENERAL McCLELLAN
                                                                                                      1. "the slows"
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