Arrangement of electrons in the Atom.


Chemistry Mind Map on Arrangement of electrons in the Atom., created by alialiciatobin on 10/11/2013.
Mind Map by alialiciatobin, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by alialiciatobin almost 10 years ago

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Arrangement of electrons in the Atom.
  1. Bohrs study of spectra
    1. light passed through a prism, broken up into an array of colours called a spectrum
      1. light from a hydrogen discharge tube, Niels Bohr found that instead of seeing a continuous spectrum, he saw a series of narrow lines called an emission line spectrum
        1. each element has its own unique emission line spectrum.
          1. Flame test
          2. Explaining the evidence of the Bohr theory
            1. 1) electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed paths called orbits.
              1. 2) electrons have fixed amount of energy. for this reason they are called energy levels.
                1. An energy level is defined as the fixed amount of energy value that an electron in an atom may have.
                  1. 3)as long as an electron is in any one particular energy level it neither gains nor loses energy
                    1. when an atom absorbs energy, it jumps from a lower energy level to a higher energy level.
                      1. energy is lost when an electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level.
                      2. Quantisation
                        1. the energy of an electron in a particular energy level cannot have just any value but may only have a certain specific value
                        2. energy levels = n
                          1. E = hf
                            1. E- definite amount of energy emitted from atom
                              1. hf = light of definite frequency or wavelength in emission spectrum
                              2. every element has its own unique arrangement and number of electrons giving rise to its own unique set of energy transitions thus its own unique spectrum.
                                1. atomic absorption spectrometry
                                  1. atoms can absorb light.
                                    1. an absorption spectrum is produced when white light is passed through a gaseous sample of an element, it consists of dark lines against a coloured background.
                                    2. wave nature of an electron.
                                      1. Louis de Broglie stated that electrons do not travel in a fixed path, it has a wave motion.
                                      2. Werner Heisenberg.
                                        1. Heisenbergs uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to measure the velocity and position of the electron at the same time.
                                        2. an orbital is a region in space within which there is a high probability of finding an electron.
                                          1. Erwin Schrodinger
                                            1. Schrodingers equations were solved to give us the shapes of the 4 orbitals S,P,D,F
                                              1. All S orbitals are spherical and only differ in size.
                                                1. P orbitals are dumbbell shaped. the three parts are Px, Py, and Pz
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