The periodic table CH.4

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on The periodic table CH.4, created by alialiciatobin on 10/12/2013.

Created by alialiciatobin about 6 years ago
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The periodic table CH.4
1 The elements
1.1 Greek philosophers; four elements earth, air, water, fire.
1.2 Robert Boyle described an element as a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
1.3 elements combine together in a chemical reaction to form a compound.
1.4 Humphry Davy discovered many elements by passing electricity through their compounds.
1.4.1 The discovery of the fact that that an electric current could be used to obtain elements from their compounds was a turning point in the history of the discovery of the elements.
1.5 Henry Mosley used x-rays to discover a method of determining the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
1.5.1 No 2 elements have the same number of protons.
2 Johann Dobereiner.
2.1 Dobereiner looked at the properties of various elements in an attempt to find some order among them.
2.2 The modern name for atomic weight is a 'relative atomic mass'.
2.3 A triad is a group of 3 elements with similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle element is approximately equal to the average of the other 2.
3 Newlands Octaves.
3.1 Arranged the known elements in order of their atomic weight.
3.2 Newlands law of octaves are groups of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, in which the first and eighth element of each group have similar properties.
3.3 Newlands tried to force all the known elements to fit into his table. newlands law of octaves worked for only about the first 16 elements. the elements were forced into the wrong group.
4 Dmitri Mendeleev
4.1 He found that if the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, then every eighth element had similar physical and chemical properties.
4.2 Mendeleevs periodic law = whenelements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, the properties of the elements vary periodically.
4.3 Mendeleev left gaps in his table to make the elements fit into the proper column.
4.3.1 gaps represented elements that had not yet been discovered.
4.3.2 He even predicted the properties that the undiscovered element should have.
5 Henry Moseley.
5.1 He discovered a method of determining the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (atomic number)
5.2 The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom.
5.3 the modern periodic table is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number.
5.4 When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, the properties of the elements vary periodically.
6 The modern periodic table VS mandeleevs periodic table.
6.1 MoPT=arranged in order of increasing atomic number
6.1.1 MePt= Arranged in order of increasing atomic weight.
6.2 MoPT= more elements, noble gases, no gaps.
6.3 MoPT= transition elements are listed in a separate
7 Atomic numbers and mass numbers.
7.1 The mass number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
7.1.1 eg. sodium has 11 protons and 12 neutrons therefore the mass number is 23 (11+12=23)
7.2 masses of atoms are so small they are not normally measured in grams. a special unit is used called the atomic mass unit.
7.2.1 1a.m.u. = 1.66X 10^-24 gram
7.3 Z = atomic number.
7.3.1 A=mass number A-Z= number of neutrons.
8 Relative atomic mass isotopes. mass spectrometer.
8.1 Mass spectrometer used to measure the masses of atoms.
8.1.1 1) Sample inlet. liquids turn to gases in the instrument. called VAPORISATION.
8.1.2 2) Ionisation chamber. turns atoms or molecules into ions. done using an electron gun. positive ions are produced.
8.1.3 3) Accelerator. accelerates positive ions to high speeds. then passed into the analyser.
8.1.4 4) separation unit (magnetic field). positive ions are made move in curved paths using a magnetic field produced by a powerful electromagnet. lighter particles - easier to deflect. heavier particles- difficult to deflect. lighter ions are pushed further off course than the heavier ones. therefore the ions are separated according to their masses.
8.1.5 5) detector. the detector responds to the number of ions hitting it. by changing the strength of the magnetic field. the operator brings ions of different masses to focus on the detector. the signal is then amplified and sent to the recorder.
8.1.6 mass spectometer is used to identify the presence of isotopes, measure the relative atomic and molecular masses, and identify unknown compounds.
8.2 isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
8.3 average mass of an atom is measured relative to the mass of the carbon-12 isotope for this reason it is called its relative atomic mass.
9 electronic configurations.
9.1 aufbau pricipal states that when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
9.2 n=1=1s^2, n=2=2s^2 2p^6, n=3=3s^2 3p^6 3d^10, n=4= 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f
9.3 Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity states that when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy them singly before filling them in pairs.
9.4 The Pauli exclusion principal states that no more than two electrons may occupy an orbital and they must have opposite spin.

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