zaramohmood
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

GCSE Science Biology Mind Map on Biology, created by zaramohmood on 10/12/2013.

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zaramohmood
Created by zaramohmood about 6 years ago
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Biology
1 Variety of life on Earth
1.1 Organisms are classified according to there features!
1.1.1 The Largest Group = KINGDOM
1.1.1.1 Large number of organisms with some similarities
1.1.2 The Smallest Group = SPECIE
1.1.2.1 1 type of organism with lots of similarities
1.1.2.2 2 organisms belong to the same specie if they are able to breed with each other and produce fertile offspring.
1.2 Adaptations
1.2.1 Adaptation are features that an organism has which enables them to survive in there habitat.
1.2.1.1 PHYSICAL- scales on a fish
1.2.1.2 BEHAVIOURAL- animals that live in large groups such as lions
1.2.2 The Saguro Cactus
1.2.2.1 The root system prevents other plants from growing around it as it's large and effective.
1.2.2.2 Has spines instead of leaves, this prevents animals from coming close and drinking water from inside
1.2.2.3 90% water
1.2.2.4 Folded stem used for photosynthesis as it doesn't have leaves.
1.2.2.4.1 Has poison inside it's stem, to ward of animals.
1.2.2.5 Flowers that produce large amounts of pollen and nectar.
1.2.2.5.1 Without the nectar bats wouldn't be attracted to the flowers.
1.2.2.5.2 Without the pollen it wouldn't be able to reproduce.
1.2.3 Hadal Snailfish
1.2.3.1 Vibration receptors to help find food in the dark as there eyes are very small due to the lack of sunlight.
1.2.3.2 Gills which give them the ability to breath under water.
1.2.3.3 Streamlined to help them swim faster
1.2.3.4 They can survive very deep in the ocean.
1.2.3.5 Special mechanisms inside body that help to withstand pressure.
1.2.3.6 Survive on a diet of shrimp-
1.2.3.6.1 Suck shrimp into mouth then push out unwanted water and sand out of it's body through special channels in the side of it's head.
2 Food Web
2.1 Changes in a food web have a BIG impact on all creatures in the food web.
2.2 Food webs are generally stable unless the following happens..
2.2.1 The climate changes considerably and 1 specie is unable to adapt to the change.
2.2.1.1 Another specie in the food wens becomes extinct.
2.2.1.1.1 Another specie that is either a COMPETITOR a PREDATOR or a DISEASE causing organism is introduced into the ecosystem.
2.3 Food chains and energy transfer...
2.3.1 A food chain is really a diagram that shows how chemical energy is transferred from one organism to another.
2.3.1.1 it arrives in organisms called producers that are able to carry out the process of photosynthesis.
2.3.1.1.1 In this process they transfer light energy into chemical energy.
2.3.1.1.1.1 This process is only 5% efficient due to the following reasons...
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Most light don't hit the photosynthesis part of the plants
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Green in colour
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.2 Some light is reflected back from the surface of the leaf.
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 some light is transfered straight through a leaf.
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Some of the light is the wrong WAVELENGTH
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Only the BLUE and RED colours in the light spectrum can be absorbed by the green pigment CHLOROPHYILL and used in photosynthesis.
2.3.1.2 How is chemical energy eventually lost from a food chain?
2.3.1.2.1 Chemical energy is transferred through one trophic level to the next.
2.3.1.2.1.1 Some of the energy is used for growth... offspring
2.3.1.2.1.2 If the organism dies before being eaten it DECOMPOSES.
2.3.1.2.1.3 RESPIRATION
2.3.1.2.1.4 FAECES... CARBON DIOXIDE
2.3.1.2.1.5 But not all of the energy at 1 trophic level will be transfered to the next higher trophic level.
2.3.1.2.1.6 The amount of available energy at each successive trophic level will decrease.
3 What can Cause Extinction?
3.1 Predators
3.1.1 Disease
3.1.1.1 Competion
3.1.1.1.1 For... Food, Water Space Light
3.1.2 A new specie moves in.
3.2 Changes in the environment
3.2.1 Temperature
3.2.1.1 Deforestation
3.2.1.1.1 Light intensity
4 Interdependence on Organisms.
4.1 Organisms depend on each other and the environment to survive.
4.1.1 However if different species live in the same habitat they will compete for food water and space to survive.