ENDOCRINOLOGY (growth hormone)

Alix Stonehouse
Mind Map by Alix Stonehouse, updated more than 1 year ago
Alix Stonehouse
Created by Alix Stonehouse over 6 years ago
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Revision on growth hormone

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ENDOCRINOLOGY (growth hormone)
  1. Growth Hormone (GH)
    1. Released from the anterior pituitary in response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signals
      1. Pulsatile release pattern
        1. Growth hormone releasing hormone antagonised by insulin and growth hormone inhibiting hormone
        2. Somatostatin inhibits growth hormone
          1. Effects include causing the liver to secrete somatomedins/insulin like growth factors. These cause uptake of amino acids and their incorporation into proteins
            1. Stimulates stem cell divisions in chrondrocytes (cartilage). The increased daughter cells ted to grow by somatomedins
            2. Glucose sparing agent - causes lipolysis so that glycerol can be used to make glucose and glucose can be used by the brain
              1. Defects
                1. Dwarfism
                  1. Deficient GH secretion, higher than normal body fat
                    1. Treated by synthetic growth hormone
                    2. Gigantism
                      1. Excess GH secretion in adolesence
                        1. Treated with sympathetic somatostatin that inhibits growth hormone
                        2. Acromegaly
                          1. Excess GH secretion in adulthood. May be due to pituitary tumours. Causes jaw extension
                            1. Treated with sympathetic somatostatin that inhibits growth hormone or surgical removal of tumours
                          2. Synthetic human growth hormone causes anti-catabolic effects of protein in the liver, bone elongation, decreased glucose and fat storage
                            1. Lean body mass and total body weight increase but no difference to strength
                              1. Can cause diabetes due to insulin resistance, arthritis, large fingers and toes, cardioomegaly and increased muscle weakness
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