ENDOCRINOLOGY (hypothalamus)


Revision of the hypothalamic, anterior and posterior pituitary hormones
Mind Map by Alix Stonehouse, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Alix Stonehouse over 8 years ago

Resource summary

ENDOCRINOLOGY (hypothalamus)
  1. Hypothalamus
    1. Posterior pituitary/ neurohypophysis
      1. Axons sent from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary causing release of hormones to the bloodstream
        1. Secretes two structurally similar peptide hormones
          1. Oxytocin
            1. Released due to mechanical stimulation at the nipple or nearing the end of pregnancy
              1. Released from periventricular neurones
                1. Expels foetus in labour (contraction) and sperm progression along the ductus deferens in males
                  1. Oxytocics mimic oxytocin and induce labour
                  2. Vasopressin (ADH)
                    1. Released due to an increase in solute concentration or fall in blood volume/pressure
                      1. Detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
                        1. Results in water retention at the kidneys and vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure
                          1. ADH deficiency causes diabetes insipidus
                            1. Can be central (secondary) or nephrogenic (primary)
                              1. Treated with vasopressin analogues (Desmopressin)
                            2. Released from supraoptic neurones
                        2. Anterior pituitary/ adenohypophysis
                          1. Secrets six peptide hormones In response to hypothalamic signals
                            1. Thyroid releasing hormone released from the hypothalamus in response to stress anfd cold temperature causes release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
                              1. See thyroid gland mindmap
                              2. Growth hormone releasing hormone is stimulated by stress, exercise and sleep and causes release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary
                                1. See growth hormone mindmap
                                  1. Growth hormone inhibiting hormone inhibits releaseof growth hormone
                                  2. Prolectin releasing hormone released form hypothalamus causing the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary
                                    1. Prolactin inhibiting hormone inhibits release of prolactin
                                      1. See gonad midmap
                                      2. Corticotrophin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus stimulates adrenocorticotropin releasing hormone to be released from the anterior pituitary
                                        1. See adrenal cortex mindmap
                                        2. Gonadotropin releasing hormone causes release of leutinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
                                          1. See gonad mindmap
                                        3. Hypothalamus release neurones into the hypophyseal portal system that stimulates endocrine cells
                                        4. Connected to pituitary via infundibulum, held in place by sellae
                                          1. Release of substance from peripheral glands con control the hypothalamus by negative feedback
                                            1. Primary disease - problem with peripheral gland (unresponsive to hormone stimulating hormone or doesn't release endocrine hormone
                                              1. Secondary disease - pituitary doesn't respond to hypothalamus or doesn't release stimulating hormone
                                                1. Tertiary disease - hypothalamic problem; doesn't release releasing hormone
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