Pituitary Gland

Thomas Welford
Flashcards by Thomas Welford, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Thomas Welford
Created by Thomas Welford almost 6 years ago


First lecture of the Endocrine series covered by general structure and development of the Pituitary gland - and hormones produced by it.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the three types of Endocrine signalling? Paracrine - activates cells receptors in close proximity Autocrine - activates own receptors through chemical Endocrine - diffuses through the blood system
Without_labels.png (image/png) Endocrine_WITH_LABELS.png (image/png)
witout_labels_pit_gland.png (image/png) With_pit_galnd.png (image/png)
What are the main four types of measuring hormone activity? Chemical assay Immunoassay Radioassay Biological assay
Where is the hypothalamus located? Protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus (part of the third ventricle) at the base of the brain, rests in a small bony cavity (sell turcica).
pituitary_balls_without_labels.png (image/png) pituitary_balls_with_labels.png (image/png)
What is another name for the anterior and posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? Anterior = *adeno*pophysis Pituitary = *neuro*hypophysis
How do the two main parts of the pituitary gland form in early stages of development? Oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch) = adenohypophysis Neural ectoderm = neurohypophysis
How do the two main parts of the pituitary gland form in early stages of development? (picture) 79926-1412901-1899167-2019165.jpg (image/jpg)
Where are the cell bodies, axons and nerve endings located that innervate the posterior lobe? Cell body - hypothalamus Axons - pituitary stalk Nerve endings - Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
How does the molecules produced in the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands get into the blood? blood_supply_vessel.png (image/png)
How was the importance of the pituitary gland discovered? Diseases - Agromegaly / dwarfism Hypophysectomy - metablic defects Injection of pituitary extracts reversed the effects of hypophysectomy
What are the four families of hormones produced by Pituitary gland? Neurohypophysial - posterior lobe (Oxytocin and Vasopressin) Melanocortin (ACTH/MSH/LPH) Growth Hormones (GH / Prolactin) Glycoprotein (TSH / LH / FSH)
What are the different cell types in the anterior pituitary gland? Thyrotroph (TSH) Somatotroph (GH) Corticotroph (ACTH) Gonadotroph (FSH / LH) Lactotroph (Prolactin) Folliculostellate
What specific hormones do the anterior and posterior pituitary glands produce? pituitary_master_conductor.jpg (image/jpg)
From a cellular level, how are most protein hormones released? Exocytosis of vesicles within the cell. Entire vesicle may be released immediately. Part released and taken back up.
How do you differentiate between Somatotroph and Lactotroph? Immunogold Lactotroph = larger gold particles (anti-PRL antibody) Somatotroph = small gold particles (anti-GH antibody)
Why do some cells contain GH and PRL? Developmental precursors of lactotrophs or somatotrophs (or cells switching cell type)
What is the model for differentiation pathways for the cells of the anterior pituitary gland? Untitled.png (image/png)
What are the important processes of the Folliculostellate cells? Form network through pituitary gland, facilitate coordinate responses to releasing factors
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