Science

Thomas Stanger
Mind Map by Thomas Stanger, updated more than 1 year ago
Thomas Stanger
Created by Thomas Stanger over 5 years ago
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The Ultimate science revision mind map

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Science
1 Cells
1.1 Animal Cells
1.1.1 Nucleus
1.1.1.1 Nucleus
1.1.1.1.1 Contains the genes
1.1.1.2 Contains the genes
1.1.2 Mitochondria
1.1.2.1 More in animal cells than plant cells
1.1.2.2 Site of respiration
1.2 Plant Cells
1.2.1 Mitochondria
1.2.1.1 Less in plant cells than animal cells
1.2.1.2 Site of respiration
1.2.2 Nucleus
1.3 Mrs Gren
1.3.1 Motion
1.3.2 Respiration
1.3.3 Sensitivity
1.3.4 Growth
1.3.5 Reproduction
1.3.6 Excretion
1.3.7 Nutrition
2 Chemical Changes
2.1 Expansion of solids
2.1.1 When a Solid is heated
2.1.1.1 Particles vibrate faster
2.1.1.1.1 Results in particles taking up more space
2.1.1.1.1.1 Causes Volume of material to expand
2.2 Expansion of Liquids
2.2.1 When a Liquid is heated
2.2.1.1 It will expand
2.2.1.2 Particles will gain more kinetic energy and move apart
2.3 Diffusion
2.3.1 When you put food coloring in water it will move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
2.3.1.1 A substance will diffuse faster in Warm water than Cold water
2.4 Compression
2.4.1 Only gas can be compressed
3 Density
3.1 Units
3.1.1 Kg per cubic meter
3.1.2 g per cubic centimeter
3.2 How to measure it
3.2.1 To find Density you have to divide mass by volume
3.2.2 If an object is irregularly shaped you can use a Eureka can
3.2.2.1 To find Density using a Eureka can
3.2.2.1.1 Find the mass
3.2.2.1.2 Find the volume of the water that flowed into the beaker
3.2.2.1.3 Divide the mass by the volume
4 Energy & Fuels
4.1 Finite
4.1.1 Fossil Fuels
4.1.1.1 Coal
4.1.1.2 Gas
4.1.1.3 Oil
4.1.2 Nuclear Power
4.1.2.1 1Kg of Nuclear Fuel stores as much energy as 25 tonnes of Coal
4.2 Infinite
4.2.1 Renewable Resources
4.2.1.1 Solar Power
4.2.1.2 Wind Power
4.2.1.3 Geothermal Power
4.2.1.4 Tidal Energy
4.2.1.5 Wave Power
5 Reproduction
5.1 Types
5.1.1 Asexual
5.1.1.1 Genetically Identical to Parent
5.1.1.1.1 Commonly found in Plants
5.1.2 Sexual
5.1.2.1 Male
5.1.2.1.1 The male carries the sperm
5.1.2.1.1.1 The sperm are kept outside of the body to make them develop correctly
5.1.2.1.2 The male's penis becomes errect when he becomes excited
5.1.2.2 Takes Both genetic information from parents
5.1.2.2.1 Commonly found in animals
5.1.2.2.2 Meiosis occurs when the normal chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23
5.1.2.2.3 From sperm and egg
5.1.2.2.3.1 Each carry 23 Chromosomes
5.1.2.3 Female
5.1.2.3.1 The female carries the egg
5.1.2.3.1.1 The egg is kept inside the body to help the baby to form in the uterus
5.1.2.3.2 The female creates a lubricant that causes the vagina to become slippery and easy for the penis to slide in
6 Solutions
6.1 The solid phase is called the solute
6.1.1 If a solid is insoluble it means it cannot dissolve
6.2 The liquid phase is called the solvent
6.3 Saturated solutions
6.3.1 A saturated solution is a solvent that can no longer dissolve the solute
6.3.1.1 For example if you add potassium nitrate to water it will dissolve but if you add too much it cannot be dissolved anymore because the solution is saturated, hence the name
7 Force & Motion
7.1 Newton's laws of motion
7.1.1 An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
7.1.2 Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object)
7.1.3 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
7.2 Speed
7.2.1 How to calculate it
7.2.1.1 Divide distance by time
7.2.1.1.1 e.g. 100kph
7.2.1.1.1.1 100 kilometers
7.2.1.1.1.2 1 hour
7.2.1.1.1.3 100 divided by 1 = 100
7.2.2 Momentum
7.2.2.1 Depending on the weight of an object
7.2.2.1.1 Means that the heavier an object is, the faster it will travel downhill and slow down
7.3 Air Resistance
7.3.1 The more air particles that are pushed at an object the more quickly an object slows down
7.4 Friction is one of the main forces that slows things down
7.4.1 You are on the Highway in a car
7.4.1.1 The road is made of glossed wood
7.4.1.2 The road is made of carpet
7.4.1.3 It will take longer for you to slow down on the wood because it isn't as rough as the carpet and the friction isn't as strong
8 Variation & Classification
8.1 Variation
8.1.1 Continuous
8.1.1.1 e.g. height, shoe size, hand span, weight
8.1.1.1.1 These characteristics will always be different in different people
8.1.1.2 Means things will always be different
8.1.2 Discontinuous
8.1.2.1 e.g. tongue rollers, blood groups, sex and ear lobes
8.1.2.1.1 These characteristics are either present or absent
8.1.2.2 Discontinuous Variation means things can only be present or absent
8.1.3 The 2 main factors that cause variation are genetic and environmental
8.2 Classification
8.2.1 Main groups called kingdoms
8.2.1.1 Animals
8.2.1.1.1 Vertebrates
8.2.1.1.1.1 Birds
8.2.1.1.1.1.1 Characteristics
8.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Have feathers
8.2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Warm Blooded
8.2.1.1.1.1.1.3 Lay eggs
8.2.1.1.1.2 Amphibians
8.2.1.1.1.2.1 Characteristics
8.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 Wet Skin
8.2.1.1.1.2.1.2 Live on land and water
8.2.1.1.1.2.1.3 Cold Blooded
8.2.1.1.1.2.1.4 Lay eggs in water
8.2.1.1.1.3 Reptiles
8.2.1.1.1.3.1 Characteristics
8.2.1.1.1.3.1.1 Cold Blooded
8.2.1.1.1.3.1.2 Scales
8.2.1.1.1.3.1.3 Lay Eggs
8.2.1.1.1.4 Fish
8.2.1.1.1.4.1 Characteristics
8.2.1.1.1.4.1.1 Covered in Scales
8.2.1.1.1.4.1.2 Cold Blooded
8.2.1.1.1.4.1.3 Absorb oxygen through gills
8.2.1.1.1.5 Mammals
8.2.1.1.1.5.1 Characteristics
8.2.1.1.1.5.1.1 Hair
8.2.1.1.1.5.1.2 Warm Blooded
8.2.1.1.1.5.1.3 Suckle Young
8.2.1.1.1.5.1.4 Have a Placenta
8.2.1.1.2 Invertebrates
8.2.1.2 Plants
8.2.1.3 Fungi
8.2.2 Single celled organisms with nuclear membranes are called Protocytists
8.2.3 Single celled organisms without nuclear membranes are called Prokaryotes
9 Acids,Alkalis and Salts
9.1 Acids
9.1.1 Are tested with Universal Indicator Paper and Litmus Paper
9.1.1.1 If Blue Litmus Paper Turns Red It means the Liquid you are testing is Acidic
9.1.2 Most foods are acidic
9.1.3 Most acids are edible some aren't
9.1.3.1 For Example HCL, H2So4, HNO3, HF, HBr, HL, H2S, H3Po4 and HCLO3
9.2 Alkalis
9.2.1 Are tested with Universal Indicator Paper and Litmus Paper
9.2.1.1 If Red Litmus Paper turns blue it means the Liquid you are testing is Alkali
9.2.2 No edible material or anything that won't harm you severely is Alkali
9.3 Salts
9.3.1 How to create a salt
9.3.1.1 Add some acid to a Petri dish
9.3.1.2 Add the same amount of alkali to the same Petri dish
9.3.1.3 Let the solution evaporate
9.3.1.4 A salt of the corresponding acid and alkali will appear
9.3.1.4.1 e.g. Potassium Nitrate, Cobalt Chloride, Copper Sulphate and Sodium Chloride
9.4 Universal Indicator Paper
9.4.1 Is more precise than Litmus Paper
9.4.2 It tells you what the pH of a Liquid is
9.4.3 You must compare the color on the paper to the chart
9.5 Litmus Paper
9.5.1 Red & Blue
9.5.1.1 Red Litmus Paper is for testing Alkalis
9.5.1.2 Blue Litmus Paper is for testing acids
9.5.2 Doesn't tell you the pH of a Liquid
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