Battle for the Biosphere

J_McNally
Mind Map by J_McNally, updated more than 1 year ago
J_McNally
Created by J_McNally over 6 years ago
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Edexcel GCSE Geography B Unit 1

Resource summary

Battle for the Biosphere
  1. Distribution of biomes
    1. Ecosystems
      1. Groupings of plants and animals that interact with each other and their local environment
      2. Biomes
        1. Large ecosystems covering a large area of the Earth
        2. Tundra
          1. Within the arctic circle
            1. Sun gives little heat, there is little rainfall
              1. Only short, tough grasses can survive
              2. Coniferous
                1. Higher latitudes where the sun's rays are weak
                  1. Trees adapt to the cold with needle-like leaves
                  2. Deciduous
                    1. High rainfall and seasonal variation in the sun's rays
                      1. Trees lose their leaves in winter
                      2. Tropical
                        1. Found either side of the equator
                          1. Very hot and with heavy rainfall
                          2. Desert
                            1. Close to the tropics of cancer and capricorn
                              1. Hot dry air sinks to the surface and the sun's rays are concentrated
                                1. Very hot in the day
                              2. How does the biosphere act as a life-support system?
                                1. Goods
                                  1. Food
                                    1. Raw materials
                                      1. Medicine (e.g St. John's Wort)
                                      2. The biosphere...
                                        1. Regulates the atmosphere, using up carbon dioxide and giving us oxygen
                                          1. Regulates the water cycle; plants slow the flow of water and filter it
                                            1. Keeps the soil healthy by providing nutrients in the form of dead plant matter
                                          2. Threats to the biosphere
                                            1. Direct
                                              1. Deforestation
                                                1. Mining/quarrying
                                                  1. Farming
                                                    1. Overfishing
                                                    2. Indirect
                                                      1. Pollution/climate change which causes...
                                                        1. Sea temperature rise
                                                          1. Seawater acidification
                                                            1. Melting of the ice caps
                                                              1. Treeline changes
                                                                1. Stress within ecosystems due to rapid change
                                                              2. Reasons for deforestation
                                                                1. Timber
                                                                  1. Land
                                                                    1. Mining or quarrying
                                                                      1. Transport routes
                                                                        1. Building settlements
                                                                          1. Building dams or power stations
                                                                        2. Case studies
                                                                          1. National Parks, UK
                                                                            1. e.g. North York Moors national park
                                                                              1. 15 parks, 22,000km sq.
                                                                                1. Conserve areas of natural beauty
                                                                                  1. Important for leisure, enjoyment, culture & the environment
                                                                                    1. Each park has its own authority
                                                                                      1. Threatened by any developments that would degrade the ecosystem
                                                                                      2. CITES (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species)
                                                                                        1. Adopted by 166 countries
                                                                                          1. Prevents the trade in products made from endangered species
                                                                                            1. A list of endangered species has been made, governments are encouraged to ban products made from these species
                                                                                              1. Imports and exports are tightly controlled with a licencing system
                                                                                                1. If these goods cannot be sold then poaching will reduce
                                                                                              2. Factors affecting biomes
                                                                                                1. Altitude
                                                                                                  1. Different plants grow at different temperatures
                                                                                                    1. The higher the altitude the lower the temperature
                                                                                                      1. There can be more rainfall at higher altitudes
                                                                                                      2. Distance from sea
                                                                                                        1. Affects temperatures and amounts of rainfall
                                                                                                        2. Rock and soil type
                                                                                                          1. Affects how fertile different areas are
                                                                                                          2. Rainfall
                                                                                                            1. Different plants will grow depending upon the amount of rainfall
                                                                                                              1. Inland areas are usually drier
                                                                                                              2. Drainage
                                                                                                                1. Swamps and bogs occur in areas with poor drainage
                                                                                                                  1. Fewer, but more specialised, plants grow here
                                                                                                              3. Biosphere management tensions
                                                                                                                1. Sustainability
                                                                                                                  1. The ability to keep something going at the same rate or level
                                                                                                                    1. Doesn't use up natural resources to keep going
                                                                                                                      1. Doesn't require lots of money to keep going
                                                                                                                        1. Meets the needs of people at present and in the future, without having a negative effect
                                                                                                                        2. Tensions
                                                                                                                          1. Economic
                                                                                                                            1. Some individuals or communities want to use the biosphere for profit
                                                                                                                              1. Uses up resources
                                                                                                                                1. Not economically sustainable
                                                                                                                              2. Social
                                                                                                                                1. Something must not benefit one group more than the other
                                                                                                                                  1. If everyone is to benefit, the environment may be put at risk
                                                                                                                                  2. Environmental
                                                                                                                                    1. Not harming the supply of natural resources
                                                                                                                                      1. Economic and social tensions relate to this
                                                                                                                                    2. Sustainable management
                                                                                                                                      1. Ensures ecosystems can quickly recover from use
                                                                                                                                        1. Prevents damage to the environment
                                                                                                                                          1. Helps local people benefit from the environment, and understand why it benefits them
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