Unit 2 Individual Differences

Gurdev Manchanda
Mind Map by Gurdev Manchanda, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurdev Manchanda
Created by Gurdev Manchanda over 6 years ago
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A Levels Psychology (PSYA2 Individual Differences) Mind Map on Unit 2 Individual Differences, created by Gurdev Manchanda on 05/18/2015.

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Unit 2 Individual Differences
  1. Biological Approach
    1. e.g
      1. biochemistry - dopamine associated with schizophrenia
        1. biochemistry - serotonin associated with depression
          1. hormones- high testosterone = aggressive behaviour
          2. strengths
            1. + doesn't rely on a single cause to explain all disorders but has several mechanisms that can be invoked
              1. + evidence gathered in support is objective and scientifically tested
                1. + effective therapies based on biological model, e.g drug therapies
                2. assumptions
                  1. the cause of mental illnesses is physical
                    1. genetics
                      1. biochemistry
                        1. neurotransmitters
                          1. neurophysiology
                            1. trauma
                              1. infection
                            2. weaknesses
                              1. - does not allow for social or cognitive factors to play a part in the mental illness, e.g. stress model sees interaction between biological and social factors
                                1. - problems with drugs used or treatment e.g. side effects
                              2. The Definitions
                                1. Failure to Function Adequately
                                  1. every human being should achieve a sense of personal well being and make some contribution to a larger society
                                    1. cope with the demands of everyday life
                                      1. - apparently abnormal behaviour maybe helpful and adaptive for the individual to function
                                        1. symptoms
                                          1. suffering
                                            1. maladaptiveness
                                              1. causes observer discomfort
                                                1. unpredictable and loss of control
                                                2. - many people engage in maladaptive behaviour, but we don't class them as abnormal e.g. adrenaline sports, smoking/drinking alcohol, skipping classes
                                                3. Deviation from Social Norms
                                                  1. social norms are unwritten rules in society of how we expect people to behave
                                                    1. - norms change with time, so behaviour considered abnormal according to this definition, may be acceptable after some time e.g drink driving, homosexuality
                                                      1. - cultural differences regarding social norms, make it a difficult and unreliable definition to use, Malinowski - Trobriand Islanders, bones of dead relatives were cleaned and worn as ornaments
                                                        1. have to consider to what extent the social norm has been violated and what it means for the society e.g rude, crime, eccentric, abnormal
                                                        2. Deviation from ideal mental health
                                                          1. Jahoda
                                                            1. criteria
                                                              1. manage stress
                                                                1. personal autonomy
                                                                  1. self actualization
                                                                    1. accurate perception of reality
                                                                      1. positive social relationships
                                                                        1. environmental mastry
                                                                        2. - certain criterion cannot necessarily be obtained, yet the person is defined as abnormal e.g. personal autonomy, environmental mastry
                                                                          1. -Ethnocentric - uses information and represents a set of values from an individualistic culture to derive conclusions about all cultures e.g. In China personal autonomy is not desired bc you do as your parent say, it is rude not to do so
                                                                            1. deviating from the characteristics and abilities which one should possess in order to be considered mentally healthy
                                                                              1. - Very vague and difficult to measure criteria = difficult to apply
                                                                            2. Cognitive Approach
                                                                              1. concerned with the processes and impacts involved in 'thinking' - thoughts, perceptions, memory, language, problem solving etc...
                                                                                1. Assumptions
                                                                                  1. maladaptive behaviour is caused by faulty and irrational cognitions
                                                                                    1. It is the way you think about a problem rather than the problem itself that causes mental disorders
                                                                                      1. overcome mental disorders by learning to use appropriate cognitions
                                                                                      2. cognitions- central part of learning, motivation and personality
                                                                                        1. thoughts
                                                                                          1. perceptions
                                                                                            1. beliefs
                                                                                            2. its how we perceive, anticipate and evaluate an event is what affects out behaviour rather than the event itself
                                                                                              1. we form an internal representation of the world/events, consisting of real information but filtered through our own perceptions and though processes
                                                                                                1. Strengths
                                                                                                  1. + therapy is effective in disorders w/ cognitive component
                                                                                                    1. + effective in long term bc doesn't just target immediate problem
                                                                                                    2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                      1. - only suitable for certain patients- willing to make effort and approach life in a more cognitive manner
                                                                                                      2. e.g.
                                                                                                        1. anxiety disorders - a person may PERCEIVEobjects or situations as a threat even if they aren't
                                                                                                          1. eating disorders - a person may MISPERCEIVE themselves as overweight even though they are underweight
                                                                                                          2. Cognitive therapy - Beck et al
                                                                                                            1. change patient's cognitive processes and behaviour, make them aware of their irrational cognitions and distorted thinking and then the behaviour that follows
                                                                                                            2. SIT
                                                                                                            3. Behavioural Approach
                                                                                                              1. All behaviour is learnt as a result of experiences
                                                                                                                1. classical conditioning
                                                                                                                  1. Watson and Rayner - little Albert and the white rat
                                                                                                                  2. operant conditioning
                                                                                                                    1. the disordered behaviour is rewarded in some way
                                                                                                                    2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                                      1. - too reductionist - many abnormal behaviours which cannot be explained using this approach, e.g. with genetic factors
                                                                                                                        1. - ignores free will
                                                                                                                        2. strengths
                                                                                                                          1. + can explain media influence
                                                                                                                          2. example = phobias
                                                                                                                            1. people with mental disorders have learnt to behave that way
                                                                                                                            2. Psychodynamic Approach
                                                                                                                              1. Sigmund Freud
                                                                                                                                1. used case studies to draw conclusions
                                                                                                                                2. neurosis develops due to unresolved conflicts during stages of childhood and childhood experiences, need balance of these stages for civilised beings
                                                                                                                                  1. STRUCTURE OF MIND
                                                                                                                                    1. ID - pleasure
                                                                                                                                      1. 3 needs -food, aggression and sex
                                                                                                                                        1. Infant - food is drive
                                                                                                                                        2. EGO - rational
                                                                                                                                          1. understanding of rules and rationality
                                                                                                                                          2. SUPEREGO
                                                                                                                                            1. sense of right and wrong
                                                                                                                                              1. guilt
                                                                                                                                            2. healthy developement would be a balance of these three parts, overdevelopment leads to underlying principles in sub concious mind, influencing concious mins
                                                                                                                                            3. Defence Mechanisms
                                                                                                                                              1. repression - unconsciously wipe memory from mind- traumatic experiences
                                                                                                                                                1. TREATMENT: bring out of unconscious mind to treat it
                                                                                                                                                2. rationalisation
                                                                                                                                                3. TREATMENT: hypnosis
                                                                                                                                                  1. TREATMENT: Dream analysis
                                                                                                                                                    1. TREATMENT : free association
                                                                                                                                                      1. Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                        1. - incredibly difficult to verify bc looks at childhood, infant memories are easily alsifiably and susceptible
                                                                                                                                                          1. - lacks temporal and population validity - case studies were only of wealthy women in
                                                                                                                                                            1. - lacks external validity case studies - subjective, extraneous variables, cannot generalise to public
                                                                                                                                                              1. - unfalsifiable
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