Weak electrical attraction between the d+ve hydrogen and the d-ve oxygen on the next molecule.
Less Dense than water
Because hydrogen bonds hold water in a rigid lattice.
High Specific Heat Capacity
A lot of energy needed to increase the temperature of water.
We are largely water so large changes of water in the external environment have relatively small effects on your body temp. (as with all living organisms)
High Boiling Point
Due to hydrogen bonding
Humans use this property, when liquid sweat lies on the surface of the skin, sweat absorbs the heat energy from the body as it evaporates. The heat need is called latent heat of evaporation. It is our major cooling mechanism
Same as plant leaves in hot climate cool down by the evaporation of water on their surface.
Many reactions will only take place in a solution as it is easy for the ions/molecules to react with other ions/molecules
water can flow so it can carry dissolved substances (eg glucose) from one place to another. This happens in our blood, xylem and phloem and urine.
Viscocity and Density
most living organisms, containing a lot of water, have a density which is quite close to that of water. This makes it easy for them to swim as they can slightly change their density by filling or emptying air from parts of their body, to float or sink.
Cohesion and Surface
On the surface their is only cohesion from molecules below so they are pulled downwards. These pulling forces draw them closer together than other parts of the pond so it is a strong layer.
Where water is used to break down a substance. E.g. poypeptide + water --> amino acids
a condensation reaction where water is also produced.
Chain of amino acids with peptide bonds
The sequence of amino acids
20 different amino acids found naturally
General formula Cn(H2O)n
Add Benedicts soln.
Blue= no reducing
Reducing sugars Cu2+
reduced to Cu+ as
sugar gives electron.
OH on carbon-1 is undA
glucose+glucose-->maltose-is only made of a glucose
OH is aBove
in a chain
Joined by a
molecules coil into
a compact helix
Thousands of a
Joined by a 1,4 and
Compact- good for
Add Iodine soln, if starch is present, soln turns blue. (original colour orange/brown)
in a chain
Both 1,4 and
giving it a globular
Food store in animals
granules in liver and
Important cos otherwise would affect conc. gradient as it would dissolve in water and affect osmosis.
Made of b glucose
1,4 glycosidic bonds
H bonds link adjacent chains
60-70 chains form microfibrils,
the number of h bonds give microfibrils TENSILE STRENGTH.
Microfibrils held together by H-bonds form CELLULOSE FIBRES
Layers of fibres running in
dif. directions form CELL