Why did the tensions between the Allies turn in to a cold war?


American reaction to Soviet Expansions - Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine.
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Why did the tensions between the Allies turn in to a cold war?
  1. Distrust between the USA and the USSR was so great, leaders were talking about the threat of war. Instead of decreasing in the amount of weapons, the two sides increased their stock of weapons.
    1. Each side took opportunities to denounce the policies or plans of the other. It was because of this that people began to talk about a cold war. This Cold War was going to last for 30 YEARS, and would dominate relations between the countries for much of that time.
      1. The tensions caused were because of the differing beliefs of the USA and the USSR, but there were some other important differences...
        1. In the 1930's Britain and France were seen as just as important as the USA and the USSR in International affairs but the war had changed them, they now weren't rich enough so went in to the 'second division'. They weren't rich, big or strong enough. Only the USA and the USSR were superpowers.
      2. 1945 - America no longer kept out of European and world affairs. In the 1940's, they realised that they didn't want to make the same mistakes they had made in the Second World War. Roosevelt said to the American congress in 1945 'We shall have to take responsibility for world collaborations or we shall have to bear the responsibilities for another world conflict. From now on, every Communist action would meet an AMERICAN REACTION...
        1. Greece and Czechoslovakia were the only Eastern European countries not controlled by communist governments. Greece had two rival groups, the monarchists and the communists. Britain supported the monarchists who wanted the king to return to power. So in 1945 Churchill sent British troops in the Greece to help support and supervise free elections but what they really wanted was the return of the king. In 1946, the USSR protested to the UN but they didn't do anything. In response, the USSR took matters in to their own hands. The British couldn't afford the cost of a war so America gave the British money to keep their troops in Greece. By 1950's, the royalists were in control of Greece although they were a very weak government, always in crisis.
          1. The USA was prepared to send money, equipment and advice to any country (which was in American view) a threat to Communism. Truman accepted that Eastern Europe was Communist but through the policy of Containment, wanted to stop stop Communism from spreading any further. Others thought that Communism should go further by giving military force as a response of Soviet expansion.
          2. THE MARSHALL PLAN
            1. Truman figured out that Communism mainly succeeded when people faced poverty and hardship. He sent the American General George Marshall to assess the economic state of Europe. The countries of Europe owed 11.5 billion to the USA. There were extreme shortages of goods, most countries were still rationing bread. There was such coal shortages that there were periods each day where electricity was completely turned off. Marshall suggested that 17 billion dollars would be needed to restore Europe's prosperity. The American congress refused to grant this money and Americans were becoming suspicious of Truman's interest in foreign affairs.
              1. The American congress did give this money because of: Communism took over Czechosolvakia. It had previously been ran by a coalition government which had been trying to pursue policies independent of Moscow. The Soviet made sure that anti - soviet leaders were gotten rid of. One pro American minister, Jan Masaryk was found dead below his window, the USSR said he had jumped but Americans believed he was pushed. Immediately the American Congress accepted the Marshall plan and made 17 billion dollars available over four years for Europe.
              2. Generous
                1. Sel - interest
                  1. They wanted to create new markets for American goods. Truman wanted to do all he could do to prevent another depression like the one in the 1930's.
                  2. Stalin's response
                    1. He forbade any Eastern Europe countries to apply for Marshall Aid. He thought that the USA was trying to make him have less control of Eastern Europe and dominate as many states as possible by making them dominant on American dollars.
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