SUBSTRUCTURE

tayto16
Mind Map by tayto16, updated more than 1 year ago
tayto16
Created by tayto16 over 6 years ago
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APC CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Mind Map on SUBSTRUCTURE, created by tayto16 on 05/26/2015.

Resource summary

SUBSTRUCTURE
  1. Basements
    1. Types of waterproofing system
      1. Tanking
        1. Integral
          1. Drained
            1. Influenced by number of factors
              1. Nature of site
                1. Access limitations?
                  1. Water table
                    1. proximity of existing structures
                    2. Building form
                      1. Depth of basement
                        1. Intended function eg car park
                        2. Legal issues
                          1. Rights of adjacent building owners
                            1. Health and sadety
                        3. Types of construction
                          1. Top down
                            1. Attempts to make use of permanent elements of construction works to provide rigidity and bracing against loadings from ground
                              1. Removes need for temporary support structures
                                1. Speedy and economical solution to formation of deep basements
                                  1. Possible to commence formation of superstructure simultaneously with basement construction
                                  2. Bottom up
                                    1. Conventional method
                                      1. Substructure and superstructure constructed sequentially
                                        1. Bottom of substructure / lowest level of basement to top of the superstructure
                                        2. Not feasible for gigantic projects with limited construction time and / or site constraints
                                      2. Construction approaches
                                        1. Open excavations
                                          1. Excavation with temporary support
                                            1. Excavation with permanent retaining walls formed prior to main excavation
                                              1. Contiguous piles
                                                1. Secant piles
                                                  1. Diaphragm walls
                                              2. Foundations
                                                1. Types
                                                  1. Piled
                                                    1. Strip
                                                      1. Pad
                                                        1. Raft
                                                        2. Soil types
                                                          1. Rock
                                                            1. Gravel and sands
                                                              1. Silts and clays
                                                              2. Functions
                                                                1. Safely transmit building loads to supporting strata, spreading them over a sufficient area to ensure that safe load bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded
                                                                2. Selection criteria
                                                                  1. Ground conditions
                                                                    1. Bearing capacity of ground
                                                                      1. Depth of good strata
                                                                        1. Ground level and gradients
                                                                        2. Loads from building
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