Grammar

ihm1997
Mind Map by ihm1997, updated more than 1 year ago
ihm1997
Created by ihm1997 over 6 years ago
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Description

Covers all main grammatical features

Resource summary

Grammar
  1. 'Types' of grammar
    1. Standard
      1. 'Standard English' -
        1. 'Hypercorrection'? (Form of over-formality - to create prestige)
          1. Convergence (to fit in) vs. Divergence (to stand out)
          2. Non standard
            1. Regional dialects
              1. Convergence vs. Divergence
              2. Inaccurate grammar
                1. Feature of spontaneous speech - language learners
              3. Phrases
                1. Noun phrase
                  1. Consists of the Head Noun, along with Adjectives (Pre/Post-modifiers), and Determiners
                    1. 'That(D) awkward little(PM) idiot(HN)...'
                    2. Prepositional phrase - Is used within a noun phrase to give additional detail to the place/time to the overall phrase
                      1. 'Top(PM) stories(HN) [of the week(PP)]...'
                      2. Verb phrase - a phrase which utilises verbs in order to make sense
                        1. Cement [tipped(VP)] into lake
                      3. Syntactical space fillers
                        1. Subject - Who/what performs the action of the verb
                          1. Finite verb - the action/state
                            1. Complement - 'completes'/adds meaning to the subject
                              1. Adverbial - Informs about the time/place/manner, object is
                                1. Indirect object/direct object - The 'thing' of the sentence that the verb takes
                                2. Building blocks of clauses
                                3. Sentence types
                                  1. Simple sentances
                                    1. Consisting of just a main clause
                                      1. Eg, [The cat slept]
                                      2. Compound
                                        1. Consisting of two or more main clauses, normally joined by 'and'
                                          1. Eg, [The cat slept] and [the children played]
                                          2. Complex
                                            1. Consisting of a subordinate, and a main clause
                                              1. Eg, [The cat slept]{whilst the children played]
                                              2. Elliptical sentences/minor sentances
                                                1. The omission of words from available syntactical spaces within a sentance
                                                  1. Eg, '(You) Shut up!'
                                                    1. The omitted/ellipted words are implied/understood
                                                  2. Nouns
                                                    1. Proper
                                                      1. Begin with a capital letter and refer to specific people or places
                                                        1. Eg, London, Michael
                                                        2. Common
                                                          1. Refer to types of people , places and feelings - less specific than proper nouns
                                                            1. Eg, city, man, planet
                                                            2. Concrete
                                                              1. Things that we can physically see and feel
                                                                1. Eg, hand, table, computer, dog
                                                                2. Abstract
                                                                  1. They don't physically exist - feelings and ideas
                                                                    1. Eg, friendship, sadness, democracy
                                                                    2. Collective
                                                                      1. Groups of people, animals or objects
                                                                        1. Team, family, flock
                                                                      2. Verbs
                                                                        1. Main verb
                                                                          1. A single verb that expresses meaning
                                                                          2. Auxiliary verbs
                                                                            1. Verbs placed in front of main verbs
                                                                              1. Eg, 'I must have been [thinking(AV)] about someone else
                                                                              2. Modal auxiliary
                                                                                1. Deontic modality
                                                                                  1. Expressions of permission
                                                                                    1. Using words such as 'can' 'must'
                                                                                    2. Epistemic modality
                                                                                      1. Expression of possibility
                                                                                        1. Using words such as 'may' 'should' 'could'
                                                                                    3. Primary
                                                                                      1. Verbs such as be, have, do
                                                                                      2. Adverbs
                                                                                        1. Gives us more information about the verb
                                                                                          1. Eg, 'She ran [quickly]'
                                                                                        2. Sentence functions
                                                                                          1. Declarative
                                                                                            1. Subject+Object, states directly who is doing what
                                                                                            2. Interrogative
                                                                                              1. Creates question by reversing the subject and verb positions
                                                                                                1. Eg, 'Is(V) it(S) a dog?'
                                                                                                2. Imperative
                                                                                                  1. Commands, normally elliptical, lacking in the grammatical object
                                                                                                    1. Eg, 'Please go away' OR 'sit down'
                                                                                                  2. Active and Passive voice
                                                                                                    1. Active voice
                                                                                                      1. Eg, The cat(S) caught(V) the mouse(O)
                                                                                                        1. The syntactical space for the subject is always before the finite verb
                                                                                                        2. Passive voice
                                                                                                          1. When the object is in the place of the subject
                                                                                                            1. Eg, The mouse(O) was caught(V) by the cat(S)
                                                                                                            2. Passive voice often used by Newspapers - it allows them to omit the 'agent' or the subject of the sentence and therefore reduce responsibility for an action
                                                                                                              1. Eg, BOMBS(o) DROPPED(v) ON CAPITAL(pp) - however, we don't know who did the dropping of the bombs, eliminates the
                                                                                                          2. Adjectives
                                                                                                            1. Comparatives
                                                                                                              1. Hotter, bigger
                                                                                                              2. Superlatives
                                                                                                                1. Hottest, biggest
                                                                                                                2. Pre/post modification
                                                                                                                  1. Whether they are put before or after the noun
                                                                                                                3. Pronouns
                                                                                                                  1. Personal
                                                                                                                    1. Replaces the subject or the object of the sentence
                                                                                                                      1. Eg, I, he, him, me
                                                                                                                      2. Possessive
                                                                                                                        1. His, hers
                                                                                                                        2. Reflexive
                                                                                                                          1. The object of the verb is the same as the subject
                                                                                                                            1. Eg, He educated himself
                                                                                                                            2. Demonstrative
                                                                                                                              1. 'Point' at something
                                                                                                                                1. Eg, this, that, these, those
                                                                                                                                2. Indefinite
                                                                                                                                  1. Not referring to specific people or things
                                                                                                                                    1. Eg, Something, anything, no one, everything
                                                                                                                                    2. Relative
                                                                                                                                      1. Who, whom, whose, which, that
                                                                                                                                      2. Interrogative
                                                                                                                                        1. Who, whose, which, what
                                                                                                                                      3. Other stuff!!
                                                                                                                                        1. Conjunctions
                                                                                                                                          1. Coordinating conjunctions
                                                                                                                                            1. Eg, And, but, or
                                                                                                                                            2. Subordinating conjuctions
                                                                                                                                              1. Because, although, unless, until
                                                                                                                                            3. Prepositions
                                                                                                                                              1. Relating to position
                                                                                                                                                1. Eg, At, on, opposite
                                                                                                                                                2. Relating to direction
                                                                                                                                                  1. Eg, Into, past, to
                                                                                                                                                  2. Relating to time
                                                                                                                                                    1. Eg, before, during, after
                                                                                                                                                  3. Determiners
                                                                                                                                                    1. The definite article: The
                                                                                                                                                      1. The indefinite article: a, an
                                                                                                                                                        1. Possessive determiners
                                                                                                                                                          1. Eg, My, our, your, his, her, its, thier
                                                                                                                                                          2. Demonstrative determiners
                                                                                                                                                            1. Eg, This, that, these, those
                                                                                                                                                            2. Referring to quantity
                                                                                                                                                              1. Eg, One, two etc, few, some, many
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