Second Language Acquisition

Lauren Ayres
Mind Map by Lauren Ayres, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Ayres
Created by Lauren Ayres over 6 years ago
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Theories and Processes of Second Language Acquisition

Resource summary

Second Language Acquisition
  1. Input Hypothesis by Stephen Krashen
    1. Repeating, adding volume, and filling in the blank, will not help one learn a new language
      1. Picture, knowledge of the world, and so on help with comprehension
        1. Words and language that they can relate to familiar situations and their speech will emerge over time
        2. Talking is not practice
          1. We acquire language in one way; when we understand what is being said through comprehensive input
            1. Teach students one step ahead of where they already are. (i+1) i=language input, +1=the next stage of language acquisition
        3. BICS vs. CALP by Jim Cummins
          1. Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
            1. Conversational fluency
              1. Students may seem to be proficient and fluent in a language while still struggling with gaps
                1. Draw attention to vocabulary words in context
              2. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
                1. Academic Language Understanding
                  1. Exercise students Discrete language skills (i.e decoding, listening abilities, social usage)
                    1. 5-7 years for EL student to reach grade level
                2. Universal Grammar by Noam Chompsky
                  1. All human language rests on innate building blocks of expression
                    1. Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives
                      1. The ability to learn grammar is hardwired into the brain
                        1. Learned through listening and using the language
                    2. Threshold Hypothesis by Jim Cummins
                      1. There is a threshold ability level that needs to be reached in one language in order for a learner to succeed in another
                        1. Above threshold in L1 and L2
                          1. Additive bilingualism; Positive cognitive effects
                          2. Below threshold in L1 and L2
                            1. Positive bilingualism; negative cognitive effects
                            2. Above threshold in one language
                              1. Neutral cognitive effects
                          3. Age and Second Language Acquisition by Eric Lennenberg
                            1. Second Language (L2) is best learned between 2 yrs and puberty
                              1. Critical Period
                                1. Use same part of brain to store both languages (lateralization)
                                  1. Lateralization complete around age 5
                                2. L2 learning is negatively affected by the completion of lateralization process
                                  1. After, learners use a different part of the brain to store a new language
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