Acids, bases and salts

hollyweber
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

AS Level GCSE Stuff Mind Map on Acids, bases and salts, created by hollyweber on 10/18/2013.

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hollyweber
Created by hollyweber about 6 years ago
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Acids, bases and salts
1 DEFINITIONS
1.1 Acid
1.1.1 Strong acids turn universal indicator paper red
1.2 Bases
1.2.1 React with acids to neutralise them to make a salt and water
1.2.2 They are usually metal oxides or metal hydroxides
1.2.3 Accepts hydrogen ions
1.3 Alkalis
1.3.1 Bases that dissolve in water
1.3.2 Strong alkalis turn universal indicator paper dark purple or blue
1.3.3 Contain hyrdoxide ions
1.4 Neutral solutions
1.4.1 Universal indicator paper: green
2 Nuetralisation reactions
2.1 Alkalis
2.1.1 Produce aqueous hyrdoxide ions, OH–(aq)
2.2 Acids
2.2.1 Produce aqueous hyrdrogen ions, H+ (aq)
2.3 When the H+(aq) ions from an acid react with the OH–(aq) ions from an alkali, a neutralisation reaction occurs to form water.
2.4 H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l)
3 Salts
3.1 Hydrochloric acid → chloride
3.2 Sulphuric acid → sulphate
3.3 Nitric acid → nitrate
3.4 The first part of the name is 'ammonium' if the base used is ammonia.
3.5 Any metal from group 1 or 2 will give a white salts
3.6 Transition metals give a coloured salt
3.7 Souble salts
3.7.1 All nitrates, most sulfates, chlorides, bromides and iodides
3.8 Insouble salts
3.8.1 if you want to make an insoluble salt XY, mixing X nitrate with sodium Y will always work.
4 Ammonia
4.1 Is an alkali
4.2 If reacts with acids produces a salt instead of water
4.3 Many artificial fertilisers are ammonium salts, made by the reaction of an acid with ammonia solution.
5 Reactions with acids
5.1 MASH
5.1.1 Metal + Acid → Salt + Hyrdogen
5.2 AASH2O
5.2.1 Alkali + Acid → Salt + Water
5.3 BASHO

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