14. Coordination and response

Description

Syllabus (extended) 2021
Brigitte Bunge
Mind Map by Brigitte Bunge, updated more than 1 year ago
Brigitte Bunge
Created by Brigitte Bunge almost 2 years ago
15
0

Resource summary

14. Coordination and response
  1. 14.1 Nervous control in humans
    1. describe a nerve impulse

      Annotations:

      • as an electrical signal that passes along nerve cells called neurones
      1. describe the human nervous system

        Annotations:

        • in terms of: - the central nervous system consisting of brain and spinal cord - the peripheral nervous system - coordination and regulation of body functions
        1. distinguish between voluntary and involuntary actions
        2. identify ... neurones from diagrams
          1. motor (effector)
            1. relay (connector)
              1. sensory
              2. describe a simple reflex arc

                Annotations:

                • in terms of receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurones and effector
                1. describe a simple reflex action

                  Annotations:

                  • as a means of automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli with the responses of effectors (muscles and glands)
                2. define a synapse

                  Annotations:

                  • as a junction between two neurones
                  1. describe the structure of a synapse

                    Annotations:

                    • including the presence of neurotransmitter vesicles, the synaptic cleft and neurotransmitter receptor molecules
                  2. describe how an impulse triggers the release of a neurotransmitter

                    Annotations:

                    • from vesicles into the synaptic gap and how the neurotransmitter diffuses across to bind with receptor molecules, in the membrane of the neurone after the synaptic gap, causing the impulse to continue
                    1. state that in a reflex arc the synapses ensure that impulses travel in one direction only
                      1. state that many drugs, e.g. heroin, act upon synapses
                    2. 14.2 Sense organs
                      1. define sense organs

                        Annotations:

                        • as groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
                        1. identify the structures of the eye

                          Annotations:

                          • limited to cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, optic nerve and blind spot
                          1. describe the function of each part of the eye
                            1. cornea

                              Annotations:

                              • refracts light
                              1. iris

                                Annotations:

                                • controls how much light enters pupil
                                1. explain the pupil reflex

                                  Annotations:

                                  • in terms of light intensity and pupil diameter, and antagonistic action of circular and radial muscles in the iris
                                2. lens

                                  Annotations:

                                  • focuses light onto retina
                                  1. explain accommodation to view near and distant objects

                                    Annotations:

                                    • in terms of the contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscles, tension in the suspensory ligaments, shape of the lens and refraction of light
                                  2. retina

                                    Annotations:

                                    • contains light receptors, some sensitive to light of different colours
                                    1. state the distribution of rods and cones

                                      Annotations:

                                      • in the retina of a human
                                      1. outline the function of rods and cones

                                        Annotations:

                                        • limited to greater sensitivity of rods for night vision and three different kinds of cones absorbing light of different colours for colour vision
                                    2. optic nerve

                                      Annotations:

                                      • carries impulses to the brain
                                    3. identify the position of the fovea
                                  3. 14.3 Hormones in humans
                                    1. define a hormone

                                      Annotations:

                                      • as a chemical substance produced by a gland and carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs
                                      1. identify specific endocrine glands and their secretions

                                        Annotations:

                                        • limited to: -adrenal glands and adrenaline -pancreas and insulin -testes and testosterone -ovaries and oestrogen
                                        1. describe adrenaline as the hormone secreted in 'fight or flight' situations and its effects

                                          Annotations:

                                          • limited to increased breathing and pulse rate and widened pupils
                                          1. discuss the role of the hormone adrenaline

                                            Annotations:

                                            • in the chemical control of metabolic activity, including increasing the blood glucose concentration and pulse rate
                                            1. give examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases
                                            2. compare nervous and hormonal control systems

                                              Annotations:

                                              • in terms of speed and longevity of action
                                              1. state the functions of ...
                                                1. insulin
                                                  1. oestrogen
                                                    1. testosterone
                                                  2. 14.4 Homeostasis
                                                    1. define homeostasis

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • as the maintenance of a constant internal environment
                                                      1. explain that homeostasis is the control of internal conditions within set limits
                                                      2. explain the concept of control by negative feedback
                                                        1. describe the control of the glucose concentration of the blood

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • by the liver and the roles of insulin and glucagon from the pancreas
                                                          1. outline the symptoms and treatment of Type 1 diabetes

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • details of B cells is NOT required
                                                          2. name and identify on a diagram of the skin:
                                                            1. hairs
                                                              1. hair erector muscles
                                                                1. sweat glands
                                                                  1. receptors
                                                                    1. sensory neurones
                                                                      1. blood vessels
                                                                        1. fatty tissue
                                                                        2. describe the maintenance of a constant internal body temperature in humans

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • in terms of insulation, seating, shivering, vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin surface capillaries and the role of the brain (limited to blood temperature receptors and coordination)
                                                                        3. 14.5 Tropic responses
                                                                          1. define gravitropism

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • as a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from gravity
                                                                            1. define phototropism

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • as a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from the direction from which light is coming
                                                                              1. explain phototropism and gravitropism of a shoot

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • as examples of the chemical control of plant growth
                                                                                1. investigate gravitropism and phototropism in shoots and roots
                                                                                  1. explain the role of auxin in controlling shoot growth

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • limited to: - auxin made in shoot tip (only) - auxin spreads through the plant from the shoot tip - auxin is unequally distributed in response to light and gravity - auxin stimulates cell elongation
                                                                                    1. describe the use in weedkillers of the synthetic plant hormone 2,4 -D
                                                                                    2. other info and terms
                                                                                      1. central nervous system
                                                                                        1. brain
                                                                                          1. spinal cord
                                                                                          2. peripheral nervous system
                                                                                            1. cranial nerves
                                                                                              1. spinal nerves
                                                                                            Show full summary Hide full summary

                                                                                            Similar

                                                                                            Types and Components of Computer Systems
                                                                                            Jess Peason
                                                                                            Forms of Business Ownership Quiz
                                                                                            Noah Swanson
                                                                                            GCSE AQA Biology - Unit 2
                                                                                            James Jolliffe
                                                                                            GCSE Biology B2 (OCR)
                                                                                            Usman Rauf
                                                                                            Biology Unit 2 - DNA, meiosis, mitosis, cell cycle
                                                                                            DauntlessAlpha
                                                                                            AQA Biology 8.1 structure of DNA
                                                                                            Charlotte Hewson
                                                                                            Function and Structure of DNA
                                                                                            Elena Cade
                                                                                            Cell Transport
                                                                                            Elena Cade
                                                                                            History - Treaty of Versailles
                                                                                            suhhyun98
                                                                                            Cells And Cell Techniques - Flashcards (AQA AS-Level Biology)
                                                                                            Henry Kitchen
                                                                                            Cell Structure
                                                                                            megan.radcliffe16