The Three Approaches to Argument

Mind Map by saurience, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by saurience over 6 years ago


Defining all approaches to present an argument.

Resource summary

The Three Approaches to Argument
  1. The Classical Approach to Argument
    1. Introduction
      1. Capturing the attention of your audience.
        1. Convince your audience to agree with your point.
        2. State Your Case
          1. Provide background and key facts.
            1. Define the importance of your case.
              1. Explain things in an understanding matter.
              2. Proposition
                1. State you proposition.
                  1. Talk about certain topics.
                    1. Set up argument in appropriate order. Having the audience comprehend what you are proposing.
                    2. Proof
                      1. Discuss your reason of proposition.
                        1. Point out the positives and negative of facts you have provided.
                          1. Provide evidence followed upon the facts.
                          2. Refutation
                            1. Proposing view points
                              1. Expands on why your argument or proposal is the one your audience would agree with.
                                1. Propose how it could benefit your audience.
                                  1. This is, This will, This must.
                                2. Conclusion
                                  1. Choose a few of most important points and summarize them.
                                    1. Appeal to the audiences feeling, coming from different point of views.
                                      1. Remind audience how they may benefit from your opposing facts and knowledge.
                                    2. The Toulmin Approach to Argument
                                      1. Claim
                                        1. State the main point of argument.
                                          1. Define your position and why your point matters.
                                          2. Grounds
                                            1. Provide background knowledge.
                                              1. Provide reasons that benefit your claim.
                                                1. Use support for evidence.
                                                2. Warrant
                                                  1. Provide reasons that back up other reasoning.
                                                    1. Casual, authority, analogy, etc.
                                                    2. Connect the data with the claim.
                                                      1. Explain why research goes along with what your claiming.
                                                    3. Backing
                                                      1. Reasons and Info that back up what you have proposed.
                                                        1. Supporting your warrant.
                                                          1. Justifying your reasons for the claim.
                                                        2. Qualification
                                                          1. Using key words like Always, Never, or Absolutely.
                                                            1. Using these words to qualify your warrant and backing.
                                                            2. Minimize words that allow argument to pose bigger picture.
                                                          2. The Rogerian Approach to Argument
                                                            1. Introduction
                                                              1. Discuss an issue and why it's at stake.
                                                                1. What can be solved or answered.
                                                                  1. Find and discuss common ground.
                                                                  2. Summarize Opposing Views
                                                                    1. Verify that you understand other people's view points and beliefs.
                                                                      1. Verify that you agree on most if not all levels of beliefs.
                                                                        1. Create that ground level using a couple different approaches to understanding the argument on both sides.
                                                                        2. Statement of Understanding
                                                                          1. Talk about what positions have what in common.
                                                                            1. Beliefs and knowledge that certain people share.
                                                                              1. Explain reasons for your choosing.
                                                                              2. Analysis
                                                                                1. Putting together that common ground.
                                                                                  1. What can you and your opponet agree on?
                                                                                    1. Demonstrate how your position applies and how it can positively affect someone.
                                                                                    2. Proposal.
                                                                                      1. Offer a compromise.
                                                                                        1. Provide information enlisted from both sides.
                                                                                          1. Settle somewhere in the middle.
                                                                                          2. Resolve issue bringing in conclusions from both sides.
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