Chapter 6: Learning

Andrew Cooper
Mind Map by Andrew Cooper, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrew Cooper
Created by Andrew Cooper about 6 years ago
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My mind map for chapter 6

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Chapter 6: Learning

Annotations:

  • Learning is any relatively durable change in behavior, attitude, of knowledge that is due to experience.  Not to be confused with a reflex which is without control and peripheral. 
  1. Classical Conditioning

    Annotations:

    • Classical conditioning is a learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus
    1. 4 Key steps
      1. UCS

        Annotations:

        • The Unconditioned Stimulus: consistently produces a particular automatic response usually controlled by the nervous system.  In Pavlov's = Dog food
        1. UCR

          Annotations:

          • The Unconditioned Response: Response that occurs when the UCS is presented.  A reflex.  In Pavlov's Dog: Salivation Always identical to CR
          1. CS

            Annotations:

            • Stimulus is neutral at start of conditioning process. Through association with UCS, the CS triggers the (U)CR.  In Pavlov's Dog: sound of bell.   
            1. CR

              Annotations:

              • Learned response produced by CS. Occurs after association. Similair to UCR but triggered by CR alone.  In Pavlov's Dog: Salivation at bell. 
            2. Pavlov

              Annotations:

              • Ivan Pavlov was a physiologist who paved the way for behavioral psychology. In his initial experiments, Pavlov presented a stimulus and then gave the dog food; after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the stimulus. Pavlov called the stimulus the conditioned (or conditional) stimulus (CS) because its effects depend on its association with food. 
              1. Involuntary
                1. Little Albert

                  Annotations:

                  • The Little Albert experiment was a case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. The study also provides an example of stimulus generalization.
                  1. Processes
                    1. Stimuli - Response

                      Annotations:

                      • A stimuli is something that causes a reaction. A Response is the reaction to said stimuli  In classical conditioning responses are elicited.  
                      1. Classical Acquisition

                        Annotations:

                        • Occurs when CS and UCS are paired gradually resulting in CR. 
                        1. Classical Extinction

                          Annotations:

                          • Occurs when CS is repeatedly presented alone until it no longer elicits a CR. 
                          1. Spontaneous Recovery

                            Annotations:

                            • the re-appearance of an extinguished response after a period of non exposure to the CS. 
                            1. Classical Generalization

                              Annotations:

                              • Occurs when a CR is elicited by a new stimulus that resembles the original CS. 
                              1. Classical Discrimination

                                Annotations:

                                • When a CR is not elicited by a new stimulus that resembles the original CS. 
                            2. Operant Conditioning

                              Annotations:

                              • Operant conditioning is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences 
                              1. Voluntary
                                1. Behavioral Programming
                                  1. Shape

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Reinforcing behavior to make them closer to goal behavior. 
                                    1. Positive Reinforcement

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Rewarding favorable behavior 
                                      1. Schedules
                                        1. Variable Ratio

                                          Annotations:

                                          • When using a variable-ratio (VR) schedule of reinforcement the delivery of reinforcement will “vary” but must average out at a specific number. Just like a fixed-ratio schedule, a variable-ratio schedule can be any number but must be defined.
                                          1. Fixed Ratio

                                            Annotations:

                                            • A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement means that reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or “fixed” number of correct responses. For example, a fixed ratio schedule of 2 means reinforcement is delivered after every 2 correct responses.
                                            1. Fixed Interval

                                              Annotations:

                                              • A fixed-interval schedule means that reinforcement becomes available after a specific period of time. The schedule is abbreviated into “FI” followed by the amount of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes available, e.g. an FI2 would mean reinforcement becomes available after 2 minutes has passed; an FI20 means 20 minutes must pass and so on.
                                              1. Variable Interval

                                                Annotations:

                                                • The variable-interval (VI) schedule of reinforcement means the time periods that must pass before reinforcement becomes available will “vary” but must average out at a specific time interval. Again the time interval can be any number but must be defined.
                                            2. Negative reinforcement

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Relief: removing averse stimulus
                                            3. Diminish

                                              Annotations:

                                              • To decrease unwanted behavior through penalty or punishment. 
                                              1. Punish

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Active Punishment
                                                1. Penalty

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Removal of privilege. 
                                              2. Processes
                                                1. Operant Acquisition

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Occurs when a response gradually increases due to contingent reinforcement. 
                                                  1. Operant Extinction

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Occurs when responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated.  
                                                    1. Operant Generalization

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Occurs when responding increases in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discrimination stimulus. 
                                                      1. Operant Discrimination

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Occurs when responding does not increase in the presence of a stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus.  
                                                    2. Observational Learning

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Behavior learned through observation, thought to be connected to mirror neurons. A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species.
                                                      1. 3 key steps
                                                        1. Retention

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Remembering what you paid attention to: cooking lesson. 
                                                          1. Attention

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • One's characteristics affect attention: capacity and arousal. 
                                                            1. Reproduction

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Being able to reproduce what is remembered: driving. 
                                                            2. Motivation
                                                              1. Intrinsic

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • An ambition to motivate self. 
                                                                1. Extrinsic

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • Motivated by external rewards. 
                                                                2. Dis-inhibition

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • Weakening of inhibition through exposure to a model: mob mentality. 
                                                                  1. Latent Learning

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Latent learning is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned.
                                                                    1. Modelling

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • A model for which others can observe behavior: BOBO Dolls 
                                                                    2. Evolutionary Perspectives
                                                                      1. Instinctive Drift

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • When an animals inate response interferes with conditioning.  
                                                                        1. Taste Aversion

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Biological and evolutionary response to consuming things that sicken us. 
                                                                          1. Phobias

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • Evolutionary to form fears of dangerous activities or animals. 
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