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Topic 2.4 Proteins of IB Biology Chapter 2 Molecular Biology

Resource summary

1 Amino acids and polypeptides
1.1 amino acids condensed into polypeptides
1.2 on ribosomes by translation
1.3 main or only component of proteins
1.4 condensation reaction: anime group (NH2) of one aa and carboxyl group (COOH) of one aa
1.5 water eliminated; peptide bond formed
1.6 dipeptide = 2 aa bonded by a peptide bond
1.7 polypetide = chain of many aa
1.8 oligopeptides = less than 20 aa
2 The diversity of amino acids
2.1 20 diff aa
2.2 carbon atom in centre linked to amine group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom
2.3 C bonded to diff R group in every aa
2.4 aa chemically diverse due to wide range of R groups
2.5 polypeptides may contain modified aa
3 Polypeptide diversity
3.1 aa can link in any sequence so polypeptides diverse
3.2 ribosome can make peptide bond between any aa
3.3 number of aa = n possible sequences = 20^n
4 Genes and polypeptides
4.1 aa sequence coded by genes
4.2 polypeptide structure stored in gene's base sequence
4.3 most gene cells store aa sequences
4.4 three bases needed to code for every aa
4.5 open reading frame = base sequence coding for polypeptides
4.6 open reading frames only occupy small proportion of total DNA
5 Proteins and polypeptides
5.1 proteins = single or many linked polypeptides
5.2 Integrin can fold any way
5.3 Collagen is twisted like a rope for structure
5.4 4 parts of haemoglobin interact
6 Protein conformations
6.1 3D conformation determined by aa sequence
6.2 3D structure
6.3 fibrous proteins elongated with repeating structure
6.3.1 folding prevented
6.4 globular proteins are intricate with helical or sheet-like parts
6.4.1 stabilized by R groups of aa
6.4.2 fold as created
6.4.3 if water soluble - hydrophobic R inside; hydrophilic R outside
6.4.4 regions with hydrophobic R outside attracted to hydrophobic membrane centre
7 Protein functions
7.1 catalysis
7.2 muscle contraction
7.3 cytoskeletons
7.4 tensile strengthening
7.5 blood clotting
7.6 Transport of nutrients and gases
7.7 Cell adhesion
7.8 Membrane transport
7.9 Hormones
7.10 Receptors
7.11 Packing of DNA
7.12 Immunity
7.13 other uses in book (non-biological)
8 Proteomes
8.1 unique in every individual
8.2 all proteins produced
8.3 separated by gel electrophresis
8.4 variable and different even though strong similarities in species
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