Explanations of Schizophrenia

daniellemulraney
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daniellemulraney
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Explanations of Schizophrenia
1 Biological Explanations
1.1 Genetic Factors
1.1.1 AO1
1.1.1.1 Family studies find individuals who have sz and whether their biological relatives are similary affected more often that non-biological or distant relatives
1.1.1.1.1 Children with 2 sz parents have a concordance rate of 46%, children with one sz parent 13% and children with sz siblings 9%
1.1.2 AO2
1.1.2.1 many researchers now agree sz runs in families due to rearing patterns and factors that are nothing to do with heredity. Research on 'expressed emotion' has shown negative emotional climate and stress experienced by some sz individuals may trigger sz episodes
1.1.2.2 SLT suggests children imitate behaviours of their role models and when they observe parent is rewarded with 'get well soon cards' and hugs etc. they are more likely to imitate those sz behaviours
1.2 Twin Studies
1.2.1 AO1
1.2.1.1 are a unique opportunity to see relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. If MZ twins sharing 100% of their genes are more concordant in trait of sz than DZ twins suggests greater similarity is due to genetic factors
1.2.1.1.1 Joseph 2004 pooled data for all sz twin studies carried out prior to 2007 and found a concordance rate for MZ twins of 40.4% and DZ twins 7.4%. This supports sz has a genetic basis
1.2.2 AO2
1.2.2.1 Concordance rates are never 100%. MZ twins share 100% of their genes so sz cannot be purely be caused by genetic factors
1.2.2.2 Differences between MZ and DZ twins may be due to environmental similarity - Greater concordance between MZ twins due to greater environmental similarity. Joseph said could be due to MZ twins being treated more similar and encountering similar environments experiencing more 'identity confusion'. Sz concordance rates may be nothing more thsn environmental differences distinguishing the two types of twin
1.2.2.3 studies in which researchers do not if they are MZ or DZ find lower concordance rates for MZ twins suggesting researchers are bias making a difference on the diagnosis
1.3 Adoption Studies
1.3.1 AO1
1.3.1.1 to rid difficulties of disentangling genetic and environmental influences for individuals who share genes and environment, studies of genetically related individuals who have been apart are used
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