A-LEVEL ENGLISH LANGUAGE : Key Theorists

Eleanor H
Flashcards by Eleanor H, updated more than 1 year ago
Eleanor H
Created by Eleanor H over 4 years ago
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Description

*THIS IS A WORK-IN-PROGESS* If a theory is named, guess the theorist and explain the theory. If a theorist is named, guess the theory and explain it. Sometimes there are examples, so try to come up with some too. Often theorists came up with more than one theory.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Speech Act Theory Austin and Searle Language is CONSTATIVE (gives info), ILLOCUTIONARY (performs a function) and PERLOCUTIONARY (affects listener). FELICITY CONDITIONS are correct AUTHORITY, PERFORMANCE and ATTITUDE
Labov There is a prestige linked to accents. Lower class people are more aware of this and therefore converge more often
Accommodation Theory Giles Speech is adjusted, either by CONVERGENCE, to become more like the audience, or DIVERGENCE, to become more different to the audience
Bernstein ELABORATED CODE is more descriptive than RESTRICTED CODE and therefore is more frequently used by higher classes although most people use a mixture of both
Stanley Male promiscuity is not so frowned upon. There are over 200 insults for women related to promiscuity with only 20 for men
Politeness Theory Lakoff There are 3 maxims: 1. Don't impose 2. Give options 3. Make the listener feel good
Frame Theory Goffman, Minsky and Gumperz As we converse, we pick up frames such as tone of voice, body language etc from which we conclude the situation and structure in order to respond appropriately
Deficit Approach Lakoff Women's language is less assertive and demonstrates their weak state in society: lexical field of domesticity, precise descriptions, frequent tag questions, weaker expletives, empty adjectives, euphemisms etc
Dominance Approach Zimmerman and West Men's language is used to assert their dominance and they will interrupt more in mixed-sex talk
Grice's Maxims The maxims of RELVANCE, QUALITY, QUANTITY and MANNER must be kept to keep conversation healthy and flowing. Sometimes IMPLICATURE is needed to read between the lines if it appears that the speaker has apparently flouted a maxim
Exchange Structure Theory Coulthard, Sinclair and Brazil 2-PART STRUCTURE: question / answer, inform / acknowledge, complaint / excuse etc 3-PART STRUCTURE: Initiation / Response / Feedback (IRF)
Narrative Structure Labov Spoken narration follows a distinct structure to hold the listener's attention: EXPOSITION, RISING ACTION, CLIMAX, CLOSURE
Petyt Non-standard features of language are more common in the lower classes
Milrov Relationships rather than class influence language choices On social media: CLOSED GROUP - everyone knows eachother OPEN GROUP - some people don't know eachother so language may be more restricted
Spender Objects also have a gender e.g. cars and boats We unconsciously view the world from male perspective where 'female' objects increase status and are under the control of men
Face Needs Goffman POSITIVE FACE NEEDS: show liking and approval e.g. greetings, compliments, terms of address NEGATIVE FACE NEEDS: soften unpleasant requests/orders using hedges to make receiver feel less threatened and more comfortable
Cheshire Variation in dialect is a conscious choice influenced by social attitude, a more determining factor than gender
Trudgill Non-standard features of language are more common in the lower classes Women are more conscious of language than men and tend to use more prestigious pronunciations
Difference Approach Coates, Kuiper and Pilkington Women's language contains lots of politeness features and is collaborative, supportive and cooperative. Men use more insults and ignore face needs in same-sex talk
Counter- Deficit Approach Holmes Tag questions are not weak. Rather, they are a method of maintaining fluency and a form of politeness
Schema Theory Tannen We have a repertoire of schemas or frames, of which we have assumptions and expectations. Miscommunication occurs when these conflict with our expectations Case study involved Doctor, Mother, Child and Observing Doctor
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