12% of the oil that enters the ocean is from oil spills, the other
88% is contributed by drains, dumping and shipping travel.
Oil is not soluble, which means it stays floating on top of the surface.
Suffocates and inhabits the movement of marine animals such
as fish, dolphins, turtles, animals that need to come up and
Doesn't allow aquatic plants to
photosynthesize as the sunlight is
blocked by the oil.
Affects food chain, producers don't have (for example) algae to eat to they
decrease in population. This makes it harder for the primary consumer to
search for it, to they may end up dying too, this cycle continues as it reaches
Sewage + Waste water
Sewage is the term used for
wastewater that often contains faeces,
urine and laundry waste.
Untreated sewage water in such areas can contaminate
the environment and cause diseases such as diarrhoea.
In developed countries, sewage often causes problems when people
flush chemical and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet. When
people are ill, sewage often carries harmful viruses and bacteria into
the environment causing health problems.
Increase in water temperatures can
cause the death of many aquatic
organisms and disrupt marine habits.
Coral bleaching of reefs occur, which
stops the release of microorganisms
that it is dependent on.
Burning fossil fuels release CO2 into the atmosphere and
cause the heat form the Sun to get rapped in the Earth's
atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise.
Pollutes the sea, causing
marine animals intake the
waste and possibly resulting in
death and disease.
We may end up consuming the fish that have been exposed to
radioactive waste, resulting in fisheries halting their operations
and us being wary of the fish we eat.
Business may have to shut down due to
the lack of sales.
A new disease may be introduced to the
population as nuclear waste can mutate
Operations conducted in nuclear power stations produce
radioactive waste. Mining and refining uranium thorium also
contributes to marine nuclear waste.
Produces pollutants that are extremely
harmful to people and the environment.
Many industrial facilities use
freshwater to carry away waste
from the plant and into rivers,
lakes and oceans.
Pollutants from industrial sources include:
Asbestos – This pollutant is a serious health
hazard and carcinogenic. Asbestos fibres can be
inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis,
mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer
and liver cancer.
Lead – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental
problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once
the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many
animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.
Mercury – This is a metallic element and can
cause health and environmental problems. It is a
non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean
up once the environment is contaminated.
Mercury is also harmful to animal health as it
can cause illness through mercury poisoning.
Nitrates – The increased use of fertilisers means
that nitrates are more often being washed from
the soil and into rivers and lakes. This can cause
eutrophication, which can be very problematic to
Phosphates – The increased use of fertilisers means that
phosphates are more often being washed from the soil and
into rivers and lakes. This can cause eutrophication, which can
be very problematic to marine environments.
Sulphur – This is a non-metallic
substance that is harmful for marine
Oils – Oil does not dissolve in water, instead it forms a thick layer on the
water surface. This can stop marine plants receiving enough light for
photosynthesis. It is also harmful for fish and marine birds.
Petrochemicals – This is formed from
gas or petrol and can be toxic to marine
Underground Storage Leakage
Petroleum, which is harmful to the environment is often stored in steel pipes. However
over time these steel pipes corrodes as it is exposed to the environment and
contaminates the surrounding soil and ground water.
The ground water may lead to a water source, which would potentially get
contaminated with the petroleum. Animals living in that water source end up
dying from this harmful substance.
Fertilisers distributed sometimes get
carried into a water source e.g a river.
This causes the plants growing in the river
to grow rapidly, they end up absorbing all
the O2 in the water leaving none for
Not enough O2 for marine life
to intake, resulting in their
Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can
get caught in marine animals and may result
Different items take different
lengths of time to degrade in water:
Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade.
Plastic packaging – Takes 400 years to degrade.
Newspaper – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
Aluminium – Takes 200 years to degrade.
Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know the exact time.
water particles mix with carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, forming
a weak acid. This gas is absorbed by water vapour, making it even more acidic. Then it
is rained down as acid rain, this level of acidity harms aquatic life.
Aquatic habitats become unadaptable and too unhealthy to live in, causing
aquatic species to die. This increase the possibility of extinction, degrading the