Biology B2.1

Rhys Hughes
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Biology B2.1. I have taken information from the official AQA Revision guide as this is a more effective way of revision for me.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Nucleus Controls the cells activities
Cytoplasm Where chemical reactions take place
Cell Membrane Controls the movement of what goes in and out of the cell
Mitochondria Releases energy during aerobic respiration
Ribosomes Where protein synthesis takes place
Cell Wall Made of cellulose for support
Chloroplasts Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Absorbs light energy
Bacteria are much .... than animal and plant cells Smaller
Yeast is a Single-celled organism
Parts of a bacteria cell Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm, Slime Capsule, Plasmids, Flagella, Genetic Material
Bacteria don't have a .... so .... Nucleus so the genetic material is in the cytoplasm
When bacteria multiply they form a .... Colony
What are specialised cells? They are cells that have a different structure that is linked to its function
Example of a cell with lots of mitochondria Muscle cell, sperm cell
Example of cells that have lots of ribosomes (to make lots of protein) Gland cells which produce enzymes
Example of a cell with a tail to move Sperm cell
Example of a receptor cell to detect stimuli Cone cells in the eye
Neurons are specialised to carry impulses from .... to the .... Receptors to the CNS (central nervous system)
Example of a cell with many chloroplasts Mesophyll cells of a leaf
Root hair cells increase the surface area of the root so... It can absorb water and mineral ions efficiently
Why does a muscle cell have lots of Mitochondria? Muscles need energy for movement
What is diffusion? Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration of a gas or particles in solution
The difference in concentration of particles between two areas is called Concentration gradient
What determines the net movement of particles across a cell membrane? The concentration of particles on each side of the cell membrane
Example of diffusion: Diffusion of oxygen from the bloodstream to the cells during respiration. Diffusion of carbon dioxide int photosynthesising cells. Diffusion of simple sugars and amino acids from the gut through cell membranes.
Tissue is a group of cells with similar ... Structure and function
Organs are made up of several types of tissue Cell -> Tissue -> Organ System -> Whole Body
(Animal) Muscle Tissue Can contract and bring about movement
(Animal) Glandular Tissue Produces substances such as enzymes or hormones
(Animal) Epithelial Tissue Covers some parts of the body
(Plant) Mesophyll Can photosynthsise
(Plant) Xylem and Phloem Transports substances around the plant
(Plant) Epidermal Tissue Covers the plant
What tissue is the stomach organ made out of? Muscular tissue to churn the stomach contents. Glandular tissue to produce digestive juices. Epithelial tissue to cover the outside and inside of the stomach.
During the development of multicellular organisms the cells ... Differentiate
the food you eat must be changed from insoluble molecules to... Soluble molecules
The soluble food molecules are absorbed into the... Blood
The digestive system is adapted to... Exchange substances with the envrionment
Plant organs include: Stem, leafs and roots
The digestive system includes: Glands (pancreas, salivary glands to produce digestive juices). The stomach and small intestine. The liver which produces bile. The small intestine where soluble food is absorbed. The large intestine where water from undigested food is absorbed.
What structures are found in both animal and plant cells? Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Mitochondria Ribosomes
What three features are found in a plant/algal cell but not an animal cell? Chloroplast Cell Wall Vacuole
Where do most chemical reactions take place in a cell? Cytoplasm
What organs are in the human digestive system? Glands Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Liver to produce bile
What chemical produced by the liver aids digestion? Bile
What are two differences between a plant leaf cell and a yeast cell? Leaf cell has chloroplast and a cell wall and a yeast cell doesn't.
What is meant by the term 'differentiation of cells'? When cells change to from particular cells with different functions.
How is a leaf adapted to carry out photosynthesis? It has mesophyll tissue with lots of chloroplast which absorbs light
What happens, in detail, to food as it passes through the digestive system? It is mixed with digestive juices produced by the glands where it is then digested in the stomach and small intestine. Bile is added by the liver to aid the digestion. Absorption of the soluble food then takes place in the small intestine where the water from insoluble food in absorbed by the large intestine producing faeces.
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