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Created by alexheppard about 6 years ago


Government And Politics Year 13 Unit 3 and 4

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  1. Individualism
    1. The belief in the supreme importance of the individual over any social group or collective body
      1. The Primacy of the Individual - individualism/freedom/reason/justice/toleration
        1. Humans do not feel like they have the freedom to act or respond to certain things in their own way
          1. This is due to the government controlling them and leading to restricting people from doing things or saying things
            1. Freedom of movement/Freedom of Speech
        2. Rationalism
          1. The belief that the world has a rational structure, and that this can be disclosed through the exercise of human reason and critical enquiry
            1. People expect to be seen as individuals however, they want to be seen as having the same rights and opportunities as everyone else
              1. Humans have the capacity to understand and explain their world. This also means that they should be able to find solutions to their problems
              2. Constitutionalism
                1. The practice of limited government brought about by the existence of a constitution
                  1. It is a way of setting values and aspirations that reflect and protect liberty through governmental power
                  2. Liberal Democracy
                    1. A political regime in which a 'liberal' commitment to limited government is blended with a 'democratic' belief in a popular rule
                    2. Utilitarianism
                      1. A moral philosophy that was developed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill. This equates 'good' with pleasure or happiness, and 'evil' with pain or unhappiness
                        1. There is the idea that people should depict life as pleasure over pain
                          1. Therefore, maximise pleasure and minimise pain
                        2. Neoliberalism
                          1. An updated version of classical liberalism, particularly classical political economy
                            1. Key Neoliberal policies = privatization, spending cuts, tax cuts and deregulation
                              1. Neoliberalism is seen as being and have the capacity of a market mechanism that is able to solve all economic and social problems
                              2. Keynesianism
                                1. Refers narrowly to J.M. Keynes (1883-1946), but more broadly to a wide range of economic policies that have been influenced by his theories
                                  1. There is an obbsession with a 'tax and spend' policy
                                    1. His theroies were influenced by economic writings and economic globalization
                                      1. This theory is focussed on uncertainty, inequality and differential levels of knowledge
                                      2. Human Rights
                                        1. Rights to which people are entitled be vitue of being human. These are also known as being the more modern version of 'natural' rights
                                        2. Postmodernism
                                          1. A contriversial and confusing term that was first used to describe experimental movements in western arts, architecture and cultural development in general
                                            1. The believers feel that there is no actual certainty and that the image of truth does not exist
                                            2. Key Individuals
                                              1. John Locke (1632-1704)
                                                1. English philosopher and politician - consistent opposition to absolution. He challenged the nature of humans as they are free and equal
                                                2. Adam Smith (1723-1790)
                                                  1. Scottish economist and philosopher - founder of dismal science = tried to explain the economy in market terms
                                                  2. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
                                                    1. German philosopher - he had a central importance of morality
                                                    2. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
                                                      1. US political philosopher and statesman - Author of Deccleration of Independence (1776)
                                                        1. Served 3rd president in USA - showed strong opposition to central gov.
                                                        2. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
                                                          1. British philosopher, legal reformer and founder of utalitarianism
                                                          2. James Madison (1751-1836)
                                                            1. US Statesman and political theorist - wrote in the US Constitution
                                                              1. Served as the 4th President of USA - leader of pluralism and divided gov. = federalism
                                                              2. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
                                                                1. A British philosopher, economist and politician. His work varied from classical to modern forms of liberalism
                                                                  1. His emphasis was based on the quality of individual life, reflected in a commitment to individuality
                                                                  2. Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882)
                                                                    1. British philosopher and social theorist - humans are social creatures
                                                                      1. Helped liberalism to reach an accommodation of welfarism and social justice - 'new liberalism'
                                                                      2. John Rawls (1921-2002)
                                                                        1. US political philosopher - used a form of social contract theory and believed in the principles of redistribution and social justice
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