Crude oil

Bethan Clark
Mind Map by Bethan Clark, updated more than 1 year ago
Bethan Clark
Created by Bethan Clark over 6 years ago


Chemistry Mind Map on Crude oil, created by Bethan Clark on 11/04/2013.

Resource summary

Crude oil
1 Crude oil
1.1 Crude oil needs to be separated to make useful fuels
1.1.1 Contains different compounds that boil at different temperatures These compounds burn under different conditions Compounds: hydrocarbons (molecules only contain hydrogen and carbon)
1.1.2 Separate a mixture of liquids by distillation Distillation of crude oil produces different liquids that boil at different temp ranges- these liquids are called fractions
2 Fractional distillation
2.1 How crude oil is separated
2.1.1 The larger the size of the molecule, the higher the boiling point of the hydrocarbon
2.2 Crude oil is vaporised and fed into a fractionating column (hot at the bottom and cooler at the top)
2.2.1 The vapours move up the column; getting cooler as they go up. The hydrocarbons condense to liquids when they reach the level/tray that is at their boiling point Hydrocarbons with the smallest molecules have the lowest boiling points (collected at the top of the column) Low viscosity, very flammable, burn with clean flames- produce little smoke (useful fuels) Short-chain hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons with the largest molecules have a higher boiling point (collected at the bottom of the column) High viscosity, not very flammable (useful when making roads etc) Long-chain hydrocarbons
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