Structures of Materials

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE Chemistry Mind Map on Structures of Materials, created by Hannah2901 on 11/04/2013.

Created by Hannah2901 almost 6 years ago
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Structures of Materials
1 Simple molecular substances
1.1 Low melting and boiling points
1.1.1 Above 20 degrees= solid Below 20 degrees= gas
1.2 Cannot conduct electricity
1.3 Non-metals
1.4 Because the molecules are small, the intermolecular forces are weak.
1.5 Can be both elements and compounds
1.6 Only a few atoms held together by strong covalent bonds.
2 Giant Covalent
2.1 Bonds are formed by electron pairs shared between atoms. The positively charged nuclei of both atoms are attracted to the negatively charged shared electrons. This is a covalent bond.
2.2 High melting points
2.3 Atoms are usually arranged into giant regular lattices.
2.4 Variable conductivity
2.5 Diamond
2.5.1 A form of carbon in which each carbon atom is joined to four other carbon atoms.
2.5.2 Very hard
2.5.3 High melting point
2.5.4 Non-conductor of electricity
2.6 Graphite
2.6.1 Form of carbon in which the carbon atoms form layers. These layers can slide over each other.
2.6.2 Much softer than diamond
2.6.3 Conducts electricity
3 Giant Ionic
3.1 Have a crystal lattice structure. This is a regular pattern of rows and columns.
3.1.1 Giant ionic lattice- the regular 3D pattern is repeated over and over again in all directions.
3.2 Made up of positively and negatively charged ions.
3.2.1 Ionic bonds are the electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
3.3 High melting and boiling points
3.3.1 A lot of energy is required to overcome the attractive forces.
3.4 Conducts electricity in the liquid state or when dissolved in water.

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