Organic Molecules

Joshua Adrián Maza
Mind Map by Joshua Adrián Maza, updated more than 1 year ago
Joshua Adrián Maza
Created by Joshua Adrián Maza over 6 years ago


Mind Map on Organic Molecules, created by Joshua Adrián Maza on 09/11/2015.

Resource summary

Organic Molecules
  1. Carbohydrates
    1. Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
      1. Glucose: immediate source of energy of cells
        1. Polysaccharides: energy storage compunds or structural role
          1. Generalities:
            1. Carbon
              1. Bonding
                1. Carbon can bond with as many as four other atoms
                  1. Carbon can bond with itself to form both chains and rings
                    1. Differences in the carbon skeleton = different chemical properties
                      1. Hydrophobic: repels water. Hydrophilic: attracts water.
                      2. Biomolecules
                        1. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
                          1. Polymers are formed by the joining together of Monomers
                        2. Proteins
                          1. Functions: support, metabolism, transport, defense, regulation, motion.
                            1. Polypeptide: long chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
                              1. 20 different amino acids in cells
                                1. Levels of structure
                                  1. Primary: sequence
                                    1. Secundary: alpha helices and beta sheets. Hydrogen bonding.
                                      1. Tertiary: final folding; bonding and hydrophobic interactions.
                                        1. Quaternary: Polypeptide>1
                                      2. Shape = Function
                                        1. Nucleic Acids
                                          1. DNA and RNA=polymers of nucleotides
                                              1. Nucleotide=phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, nitrogen-cont. base
                                                1. DNA
                                                  1. Phosphate, deoxribose and N cont. bases
                                                    1. Stores info for replication and for order of aminoacids
                                                      1. Double helix: A-T, C-G: N bonding
                                                      2. RNA
                                                        1. Phosphate, ribose and AUCG bases.
                                                          1. Single stranded
                                                          2. ATP
                                                            1. Unstable phosphate bonds
                                                              1. Energy currency
                                                            2. Lipids
                                                              1. Variety of compounds that are insoluble in water
                                                                1. Fats and oils: long term energy storage
                                                                  1. One glycerol. Three fatty acids.
                                                                    1. Nonpolar: insoluble in water
                                                                      1. Fats: saturated fatty acids: no carbon-carbon double bonds
                                                                        1. Oils: unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds in hydrocarbon chain
                                                                        2. Phospholipid: Two fatty acids. One Phosphate group.
                                                                          1. Bilayer: hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails
                                                                            1. Steroids: four ring structure, different by the groups attached to them.
                                                                              1. Waxes: One fatty acid. One hydrocarbon chain bonded to an alcohol with a long hydrocarbon chain.
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