8. Enzymes

Mane Sahakian
Mind Map by Mane Sahakian, updated more than 1 year ago
Mane Sahakian
Created by Mane Sahakian over 5 years ago
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Enzymes: Basic Concepts and Kinetics

Resource summary

8. Enzymes

Annotations:

  • A quarter of the genes in the human genome encodes enzymes
  • Mediate the transformation of one form of energy to another
1 Catalytic power

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  • They catalyze by stabilizing transition states
1.1 Active site

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  • The particular site the catalysis takes place on the enzyme
1.2 Proteins

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  • Nearly all know enzymes are proteins
  • capacity to specifically bind a very wide range of molecules
2 Specificity
3 Substrates

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  • The very specific reactants enzymes choose to catalyze reactions with
4 Proteolytic enzymes

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  • These enzymes catalyse proteolysis
4.1 Proteolysis

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  • The hydrolysis of a peptide bond
4.2 Hydrolysis of an ester bond
5 Cofactors

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  • Able to execute chemical reactions
5.1 Holoenzyme

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  • An enzyme with a cofactor
5.2 Metals
5.3 Coenzymes

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  • Small organic molecules
5.3.1 Prosthetic groups

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  • Tightly bound coenzymes
5.3.2 Cosubstrates

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  • Loosely bound coenzymes. They are like substrates and products, they bind to the enzymes and are released from it.
6 Apoenzyme

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  • An enzyme without a cofactor
7 Free energy (G)

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  • A thermodynamic property, that is a measure of useful energy to the energy that is capable of doing work
7.1 ΔG

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  • The free energy difference, ΔG, between reactants and products Tells us whether the reaction will take place spontaneously 
7.1.1 1. Exergonix

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  • A reaction that takes place spontaneously --> ΔG is negative 
7.1.2 2. Equilibrium

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  • A system is at equilibrium and no net change can take place if ΔG is zero    
7.1.3 3. Endergonic

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  • A reaction cannot take place spontanously if ΔG is positive ( An input is required to drive such a reaction)
7.1.4 4. Independent of the path

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  • ΔG of a reaction depends only on the free energy of the products minus the free energy of the reactants. The ΔG of a reaction is independent of the path of the transformation. 
7.1.5 5. Provides no info about the rate

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  • A negative ΔG indicates the a reaction CAN take place spontaneously, but doesn't specify whether it will proceed at a specifik rate
7.2 Energy required

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  • The energy required to initiate the conversion of reactants into products Tells us the rate of the reaction
7.2.1 ΔG°

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  • The standard free energy
7.2.1.1 ΔG°'

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  • The standard free energy change at pH 7
7.2.1.1.1 Keq'

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  • The equilibrium constant under standard conditions
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