1.1.1 Typified by B.F. Skinner; states that behavior is learned
through S-R-R, a replicable process of stimulus, response,
and positive or negative reinforcement.
18.104.22.168 Applies to language acquisition because it can turn any
desired behavior into a spontaneously performed habit.
1.2 Information Processing
1.2.1 Developed by R.C. Anderson; centered around
idea that all knowledge falls into 2 categories:
declarative and procedural.
22.214.171.124 Declarative: rapidly learned; information is stored in schemas.
Procedural: gradual process; teaches how to do something
successfully step by step.
126.96.36.199 Applies to language acquisition because once the correct language is
modeled, the learner may mirror the correct language, store that
knowledge in a schema, and repeatedly use it to enhance their
1.3 Social Interaction
1.3.1 Developed by Gass, Vygotsky, and Swain; focused
on the context of learning a language and how
learners may use conversational interactions to
build their knowledge.
188.8.131.52 Emphasizes that language can be enhanced by conversing with a partner. The
learner will notice a "gap" in what they say and what they want to say, then
they will actively work with grammar and structure to close that gap.
2.1 Audiolingual Approach
2.1.1 Adapted by North American linguists in the 1900s;
stemmed from oral tradition of Native Americans.
184.108.40.206 Utilized vocal repetition of proper grammatical patterns
by the learner; correct reproductions were rewarded,
while incorrect reproductions were punished.
2.2 Natural Approach
2.2.1 Developed by Chomsky, Krashen, and Cummins; emphasizes a "natural order" of
language learning which follows the process of acquisition, editing, and application.
220.127.116.11 Describes the presence of an "affective filter" in learning a second language;
in short, if any process causes fear or anxiety in the learner, then less of the
target language will be acquired or learned.
2.3 Communicative Approach
2.3.1 Developed as a way of teaching designed around the following classroom principles.
18.104.22.168 Emphasis is placed on interacting in the target
language as communication.
22.214.171.124 Authentic texts written in the target language
are introduced into the lesson.
126.96.36.199 The student's classroom learning is enhanced by their
own personal experiences.
188.8.131.52 An attempt is made to link classroom learning with
language activities outside the classroom.