Chemistry Unit 1

Emily Wordsworth
Mind Map by Emily Wordsworth, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Wordsworth
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Chem 1 revision

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Chemistry Unit 1
  1. Mass Number = Number of Protons + Neutrons (in the nucleus/atom)
    1. Relative Atomic Mass = The mean mass of an atom of an element compared to one twelfth the mass of a 12C atom.
      1. The first ionisation energy is the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous atoms forms one mole of gaseous ions with a single positive charge
        1. The second ionisation energy is the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous ions with a single positive charge forms one mole of gaseous ions with a double positive charge
          1. Ti+ (g) -->  Ti2+ (g) + e-
          2. X(g) --> X+ (g) + e-
            1. 1.The attraction of the nucleus (The more protons in the nucleus the greater the attraction)
              1. 2. The distance of the electrons from the nucleus (The bigger the atom the further the outer electrons are from the nucleus and the weaker the attraction to the nucleus)
                1. 3. Shielding of the attraction of the nucleus (An electron in an outer shell is repelled by electrons in complete inner shells, weakening the attraction of the nucleus)
                2. Emperical Formula: the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
                  1. Covalent Bond: a shared pair of electrons
                    1. Dative Covalent Bond: A covalent bond in which the shared pair of electrons are provided by just one of the bonded atoms
                      1. Electronegativity: The power of an atom to withdraw electron density from a covalent bond
                        1. Structural Isomerism: Compounds which have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula/displayed formula
                          1. Cracking: A process used by the petroleum industry to produce shorter alkanes and alkenes from longer alkanes
                            1. Ideal Gas Equation: pV=nRT
                              1. No. of moles = Mass/Mr
                                1. Concentration = No. of moles/Volume
                                  1. Atom Economy = (mass desired product / mass all reactants)x100
                                    1. % Yield = (Actual yield / Theoretical yield)x100
                                      1. Mass Spectrometry:
                                        1. Step 1) Ionisation •Sample is dissolved in a polar solvent •A high voltage is applied to sample •The particles lose an electron ( or more) •Forming positive ions with different charges E.g. Ti  Ti+ + e–
                                          1. Step 2) Acceleration •Positive ions are accelerated by an electric field •To a constant kinetic energy
                                            1. Step 3) Deflection •The positive ions with smaller m/z values will have the same kinetic energy as those with larger m/z and will move faster. •The heavier particles take longer to move through the drift area. •The ions are distinguished by different flight times
                                              1. Step 4) Detection •The ions reach the detector and generate a small current, which is fed to a computer for analysis. The current is produced by electrons transferring from the detector to the positive ions. The size of the current is proportional to the abundance of the species
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